Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Ethical issues regarding stem cell research Essay One of the recent significant breakthroughs in the field of biomedicine is the discovery, isolation and the ultimate culturing of stem cells from human embryos. The stem cells which are isolated form embryos are unique in that they are able to self renew and still retain capacity to differentiate too many forms of tissue cells. Cultured embryonic stem cells also have the potential of being developed to make regenerative medicine which can be used to treat fatal or debilitating conditions which while treated with normal prescriptions they are not curable. The embryonic stem cells are also capable of prolonging lives of individuals. Despite their potential to cure otherwise incurable diseases and to prolong lives, this discovery has led to questions regarding the value of life. While harvesting or extracting the embryonic stem cells, there are high possibilities of destroying the embryos thus bringing to an end possible human life. The question which arises is whether the lives of these possible human lives should be sacrificed for the improvement of the already existing human beings (Mcgee Caplan, para 2-3). Ethical issues regarding stem cell research One of the major ethical dilemmas facing the embryonic research is the tension created between two moral principles which are highly esteemed. One of the moral principles entails prevention and also alleviation of pain and suffering while the other principle highly regards the value of life. Moral ethics requires people to respect and value human life and also to eliminate pain or possibilities of suffering in individuals. During extraction of embryonic stem cells, there are high possibilities of destroying the embryo thus destroying a possible life. However, such activities have the potential of alleviating pain and curing some of the diseases which are terminal. As such, embryonic stem cells fulfill the moral principle of alleviating and improving the medical conditions of individuals (Rickard, Para 5). However, despite the above possible advantages, destruction of embryos during stem cells harvesting is a violation of the second moral principle which deals with the value of human life. As noted earlier, embryos harvesting results in their destruction thus destruction of life. Life is said to begin when fertilization takes place thus embryos are living things and thus destroying them would amount to destruction of life or devaluation of the value of life. The two moral principles cannot be respected simultaneously as fulfilling one would amount to violation of the other. This raises a conflict as to which principle should be given more weight. Should improvement of and alleviation of suffering be considered first thus permit stem cell research which is destructive or should this research be prohibited due to its destructive nature and violation of the value of human life? This is a major ethical issue which faces this research and which has led to sharp differences in the biomedical field (Shapiro, para 7). Another ethical issue surrounding the stem cell research is based on the intention behind the creation of embryos. Ethics is mainly based or evaluated in terms of the motive and intention behind an action. People opposed to stem cell research argue that it should only be permissible to create embryos if they are meant for reproductive purposes. Creating embryos only to be destroyed for research purposes is impermissible as this would lead to intentional destruction of human life. However, researchers argue that while they create embryos for reproductive functions, they create them in excess and most of them are just discarded. As such, instead of discarding them, such embryos can be used for research and also to help in the formation of medicine for the terminal illnesses. Ethical issues arise between the significance of creation of embryos for reproduction versus for research purposes (Gruen, Grabel Singer, pp 134). Viability of embryos debates also raises some ethical issues concerning the stem cell research. The viability of embryos is based on the notion that some embryos though they develop, they do not develop to certain stages and thus are only discarded. As such, they should be used to alleviate, alleviate and improve the lives of already existing human beings. Embryos after they are created awaiting reproduction, they develop to certain stages after which they can only be discarded if taken up for reproduction functions. Instead of discarding them, some researchers argue that they should be used for research purposes which would yield more benefits. Ethical questions however arise as to whether researchers would not deliberately create more embryos than required to use them for their research in the name of their non viability (Williams, Johnson, para 9). Conclusion Stem cell research has led to controversial debates which are based on the ethical and moral issues regarding life and its value. While some people feel that this research should be used to help in developing medicine for alleviating suffering to terminally ill individuals, others feel that allowing this research would only lead to destruction of possible human life. However, the question of the embryos which are discarded after they become non viable for production purposes also arises. Moral judgment on whether non viable embryos should be discarded instead of being used for research which could be of greater impact forms a major debate. While deciding on whether stem cell research should be allowed or prohibited, all possible impacts on the social status should be considered. The benefits of the research should be weighed against the negative impacts before reaching and agreement. The surrounding circumstances should also be considered while debating on the stem cell research. Work cited: Gruen Lori, Grabel Laura Singer Peter: Stem Cell Research: The Ethical Issues. (2007). Published by Blackwell. ISBN 1405160624 Mcgee, Glenn Caplan, Arthur L. : Stem Cell Research. (2001). Journal article of The Hastings Center Report, Vol. 31 Rickard, Maurice: Key Ethical Issues in Embryonic Stem Cell Research. (2002). Retrieved on 10th March 2009 from, http://www. aph. gov. au/library/pubs/CIB/2002-03/03cib05. pdf. Shapiro, Robyn S. : Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate. (2006). Journal article of Social Education, Vol. 70 Sherlock, Richard Morrey, John D. : Ethical Issues in Biotechnology. (
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Becoming an American requires adjustment to the English language and interacting with different people. In the essay Ã¢â¬Å"Aria: A Memoir of a Bilingual Childhood,Ã¢â¬ Richard Rodriguez illustrates the distinctions between individual and social identity as a Mexican immigrant. He explains individual identity through the process of considering himself as an American citizen. Rodriguez also acknowledges the necessity of assimilating into the American culture and the consequences that follow. Rodriguez describes individual identity through the process of allowing himself to become a member of American society. As a child, Rodriguez did not consider himself an American, but he quickly realized he could not achieve individuality until he accepted himself as a citizen. Rodriguez states, Ã¢â¬Å"In public, by contrast, full individuality is achieved, paradoxically, by those who are able to consider themselves members of the crowdÃ¢â¬ (283). Rodriguez explains that to gain complete individual identity, a person must consider him or herself as part of the group or society. Because Rodriguez cannot consider himself as a citizen, he cannot appreciate the values and traits of other people within his community. Therefore, Rodriguez will not view other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s perspectives to acquire more knowledge about the society around him or seek out who he is to become a unique individual. Another example of how Rodriguez illustrates individuality by becoming a member of the American society occurs when he is able to seek the tools needed to speak English. Rodriguez writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Only when I was able to think of myself as an American, no longer an Alien in gringo society, could I seek the rights and opportunities necessary for full public individualityÃ¢â¬ (284). When Rodriguez ... ...izes that it will not be easy to hear his Ã¢â¬Å"intimate family voicesÃ¢â¬ (284). Rodriguez explains the consequences of assimilation through social identity. Rodriguez acknowledges individuality by regarding himself as an American citizen. He also acknowledges social identity by viewing how he and his parents go through a difficult time learning English to communicate within their neighborhood. In addition, Rodriguez notices social identity when he is finally confident to speak the English language. In the end, the struggles Rodriguez experiences while adjusting to the American society only make him a stronger and triumphant individual. Work Cited Rodriguez, Richard. Ã¢â¬Å"Aria: A Memoir of a Bilingual Childhood.Ã¢â¬ The Arlington Reader Contexts and Connections. Ed. Lynn Z. Bloom And Louise Z. Smith. 3rd ed. Boston: Bedford/ St. MartinÃ¢â¬â¢s, 2011. 275-84. Print.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Teleshopping offers the possibility of increasing discretionary time by eliminating travel time for traditional shopping trips, and by speeding routine purchases. Intelligent agents, or pieces of software that search computer networks, will reduce our need to comparison shop to obtain the best price. Using intelligent agents to automate routine shopping for groceries and staple goods may give households more time for other activities. (Kare-Silver, 1998) Increases in leisure activities may have far-reaching social and environmental effects. Previously mentioned reductions in activity space, combined with increases in pedestrian and bicycle travel may make neighbourhood attractions more popular. Family ties may regain importance and discretionary time will be spent at home. Either way, increases in discretionary time will likely boost the economy as spending on leisure activities increases (Markham, 1998). If families and individuals use their new free time to go for drives in the country, we may see a reverse congestion problem, where roads are clear during the week and crowded on the weekends. Overall, the effects of discretionary time changes are very difficult to predict. Such changes may not produce any noticeable changes in our society or environment for a very long time. A revolution in the shopping environment is about to take place. But it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t affect all consumers and impact all retailers immediately. And it will not replace the traditional shopping completely, because there are still many traditional social shoppers. Such as women, to go window-shopping is one of their natural instincts. It is impossible for them to do shopping at home always. What they enjoyed most are the social atmospheres of the malls. They like to have a chat with the sales people, they like to try the clothes on and then do some compare. This is what Teleshopping can not satisfy them. However, the shopping scene is changing, retailers will need to develop. Standing still carries a high risk of being disintermediated, cut out of the supply chain as Teleshopping grows. As they move into the next century retailers will have a range of options. At one extreme they could transfer their business to become a full electronic home-delivery operation gradually moving out of their physical retail estate. And an alternative they could look to revitalise their physical presence and evolve the store proposition to meet some of the changing consumer demands. 1 Anon (1998a) UK retail sales 160 billion pounds sterling by year 2000. Searchbank 2 Gingh G et al The Information Age IM3007 Participants Pack (1999) p9
Sunday, January 5, 2020
The Role of the Witches in Macbeth When Shakespeare wrote his play, Macbeth in 1606 a large majority of people were interested in witchcraft. This is why Shakespeare made the witches and the witchesÃ¢â¬â¢ prophecies play a major part in the storyline of the play. In the time of Macbeth witches were not thought to be supernatural beings themselves, but supposedly gained their powers by selling their souls to Satan. There can be little doubt that most of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s audience would have believed in witches, and for the purpose of the play, at least, Shakespeare also accepted their reality. The three witches in the tragedy Macbeth are introduced at the beginning of the play and the brief opening few scenes give an immediate impressionÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦If Macbeth had listened to his friend Banquo then perhaps the tragic events to follow could have been stopped. But the witches who could supposedly foretell the future, add temptation, and influence Macbeth. They had told Macbeth that he would be King he became impatient and tried to hurry it as quickly as he could. But they cannot control his destiny. Macbeth creates his own misery when he is driven by his own sense of guilt. This causes him to become insecure as to the reasons for his actions, which in turn causes him to commit more murders. The witches offer great enticement, but it is in the end, each individualÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to fall for the temptation, or to be strong enough to resist their captivation. The three Witches are only responsible for the introduction of these ideas and for further forming ideas in Macbeth head, but they are not responsible for his actions throughout the play. Everything that the witches say sounds they are chanting a magic spell. In act 4 scene 1 lines 4-9 : Ã¢â¬ËRound about the cauldron goÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.charmed pot.Ã¢â¬â¢ Here the poet uses rhyming couplets and a different rhythm to the rest of the play. There is a repeated chorus in which they all join in. Ã¢â¬â¢Double, double, toil and trouble: Fire, burn; and cauldron, bubble.Ã¢â¬â¢ The alliteration with the repeated Ã¢â¬ËdÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËbÃ¢â¬â¢ sounds make the chant sound very powerful and is very catchy. Lady Macbeth is shown early in the play as an ambitious woman with a singleShow MoreRelatedImportance Of Shakespeare s Macbeth 1519 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe Witches in Macbeth by William Shakespeare Throughout all of history, witches are known for practicing magic and creating prophecies to predict any future. In any scene involving witches, it is important to know their role in the play, whether they change the outcome of the play or simply influenced it, and the supernatural features the play comes along with in its time. In No Fear Shakespeare Macbeth by William Shakespeare, the play starts out with the three witches. The witches wereRead MoreSupernatural Soliciting Within Shakespeare s Macbeth1728 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJulia Sawicka Ms. Paolone ENG3U1d Monday, November 6th, 2017 Supernatural Soliciting within Shakespeare s Macbeth ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Macbeth is broadly known as a cursed play by a myriad of individuals globally. Given its appalling history of death and disorder, as well as the supernatural elements present within the play, many have come to the latter conclusion. To add, Macbeth is also a tragedy, adding more malediction to the already allegedly accursed play. To create such a tragic, ill-fatedRead MoreTheme Of Supernatural In Macbeth773 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWilliam Shakespeares Macbeth, the supernatural and the role it plays in motivating characters is present throughout the duration of the play. The supernatural causes conflict in the play and the prophecies from the witches in act one is the inciting action. The apparition, Banquos ghost, and the dagger are examples of how the presence of the supernatural causes conflict. The theme of the supernatural causing conflict in Macbeth plays an important role in the plot of the play. The witches in MacbethRead MoreRole of Supernatural in Shakespeares a Midsummer Nights Dream1547 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWitches Brew and Fairy Dreams: A Genre Study of Shakespeares Use of the Supernatural (Penn State University, English 444.2: Spring 1998) by Fred Coppersmith Near the end of the opening scene of Macbeth, Shakespeares three Weird Sisters proclaim in unison that fair is foul, and foul is fair, providing us, as readers, with perhaps the best understanding of the plays theme and the tragic downfall of its central character. That this revelation -- this pronouncement that all is not well in ScotlandRead MoreAnalysis Of The Tragedy Of Macbeth1207 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The Ã¢â¬ËTragedy of MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢ (also known as Ã¢â¬ËMacbethÃ¢â¬â¢) is a play written by William Shakespeare and it was first performed in 1606. This play presents plenty of themes through the action and dialogue throughout the play. Although the play is universally and most commonly referred to as the dark tragedy presented by Shakespeare. The most common themes that were introduced to the audience tend to be femininity versus masculinity, pride and honor, the role of supernatural, temptation and evil and a lotRead MoreThe Importance of the Theme of the Supernatural in William Shakespeares Macbeth951 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTheme of the Supernatural in William Shakespeares Macbeth The supernatural in Elizabethan times was seen as a very real threat to society. The public thought that there were such things as witches who could perform acts of the supernatural such as turning humans into animals and causing changes in the weather. Any mention of the supernatural in these times scared the public and many people, mainly women, were executed on the thought that they were witches. In theRead MoreThe Supernatural Element Of William Shakespeare s Macbeth1265 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswhat each supernatural element represents in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s society and in our current society. The supernatural elements in Macbeth include fate, the witches, mythological beings, ghosts, and apparitions. I believe that the witches in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s time, in the play and in real life, represent the power of choice. The power to be able to decide to commit murder or any other heinous act or decide to let things naturally happen shows the classic choice between good and evil, but the witches themselvesRead MoreSupernatural Elements and Impacts in the Play Macbeth:1620 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Man is not the creature of circumstances Circumstances are the creatures of man.Ã¢â¬ Macbeth, throughout the play, is presented as one much above the ordinary beings, and, as such, he fulfils the basic -requirements of being a tragic hero. Shakespeare, introduces him as a brave general, a bold, resolute man of action who through as also referred to Ã¢â¬Å"ValorÃ¢â¬â¢s minionÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"BellonaÃ¢â¬â¢s bridegroomÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, the kingÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢valiant cousinÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, a very Ã¢â¬Å"eagleÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ among Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢sparrowsÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢, a Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢lionÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢Read MoreOccult and Supernatural Elements in Macbeth1402 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAlthough Macbeth is not classed as being a supernatural play or a play of the occult, there are some elements in the play that Shakespeare uses to effect. It is necessary however, to define what is meant by the terms Ã¢â¬ËoccultÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËsupernaturalÃ¢â¬â¢: the term Ã¢â¬ËoccultÃ¢â¬â¢ is defined as being Ã¢â¬Ësupernatural beli efs, practises or phenomenonÃ¢â¬â¢ and the term Ã¢â¬ËsupernaturalÃ¢â¬â¢ is defined as being Ã¢â¬Ëattributed to some force beyond scientific understanding or the laws of natureÃ¢â¬â¢; both these terms can be associated withRead MoreSupernatural Elements Of Macbeth By William Shakespeare1076 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSupernatural Forces In Macbeth 1)Even today people struggle with whether or not to believe in supernatural forces, such as ghosts or witchcraft, but those who would admit that they let the supernatural guide their behaviors and predict their futures would be harder to find. 2) ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play, Macbeth, takes place during medieval times when many people believed strongly in the presence and power of witchcraft and in the supernatural. 3) In Macbeth, Shakespeare uses three witches, a floating dagger