Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Revenue Recognition and Lucent Technologies, Inc Essay

Revenue Recognition and Lucent Technologies, Inc - Essay Example In the case of Lucent Technologies, Inc. ("Lucent"), the recognition policies proved to be unfortunate in light of the SEC action against them. Generally, one of the most reliable methods for revenue recognition is the critical event basis. When a critical event takes place within the operating cycle, such as a final sale, there are few questions regarding the recognition of the revenue. This more conservative method is "justified because the price of the product is then known with certainty; the exchange has been finalized by delivery of goods, leading to an objective knowledge of the costs incurred" which allows the revenue from the transaction to be accurately recorded (Riahi-Belkaoui 45). This results in a faithful representation of the company's underlying financial condition because it is unbiased and verifiable. In terms of relevance of the information, the company may take the position that, since investors use the data to make decisions regarding timely investments, they should be given information that presents the company in the best possible light. This approach can result in more aggressive methods, like the on es used by Lucent, via a scheme of issuing credits to recognize revenue as soon as possible. ... Revenue should be recognized at the final sale. In the case of Lucent, the company's actions demonstrate the worst aspects of ignoring conservative revenue recognition. They chose to use any means necessary to present investors with a positive picture. Lucent's management decided that it was more important to show higher levels of income than engage in a faithful representation of true financial condition. The problem for Lucent was that investors were relying on the overstated revenues as a basis for owning the company's shares, and when the true revenue numbers were revealed, the stock lost over five percent of its value. Management's decision to massage the numbers toward the higher revenue representation was a poor one. This case demonstrates the down-side of tampering with information to meet sales goals so that investors will be please. It is far better to use a reliable methodology. Lucent's aggressive revenue recognition policies ultimately hurt the company because they were dishonest and biased. When a vendor has an ownership interest in a customer, it is easier to engage in these practices. By using the leverage of customer ownership, Lucent could claim the revenues it originally reported while knowing that renegotiated terms would result in subsequent credits against that revenue. The issue is one of control. Rising to the level of collusion, Lucent could over-ship to its partner/customers, show the gross revenue on its financials, and then control the final customer cost through credits. The failure to book the impending credits, when management knew that such reporting would temporarily meet the sales targets but ultimately result in reduced revenues, was

Monday, October 28, 2019

Thistles and Tall Nettles Essay Example for Free

Thistles and Tall Nettles Essay The poems Tall Nettles by Edward Thomas and Thistles by Ted Hughes contain similar yet different themes. Both of them contain not one but many themes of their own. The Tall Nettles contains a theme of abandonment, a theme of nature fighting back against man, and man-made objects, as well as the theme of inner beauty i. e. , beauty that is not obvious to the eye. The poet is showing that the plant is fierce, yet protective over a place that belongs to them, simply because no one else wants it. It portrays how the nettles have triumphed over man by covering the machines. Thomas shows this conquest over man in a positive light. It portrays the nettles as beautiful, yet they are not aesthetically pleasing. This seems to show that Thomas sees the inner beauty of the nettles; he portrays their resilience and strength. Thistles also contains the theme of nature fighting back against man as well as the theme of survival. Unlike in the previous poem, the thistles are fighting over land which is still desired by man. Hughes, unlike Thomas, portrays these battles in a negative light, and seems to portray the plants as the enemy. This poem is a lot more violent than the previous one, as it actually portrays the epic battle that the thistles fight to survive. Both these poems portray themes of nature fighting against man, and survival. Analysis of Thistles Thistles is a poem about survival and triumph. It portrays how thistles have to fight to stay alive, but they in fact conquer over their aggressors. In order to fully understand this one must analyze the poem stanza by stanza. In stanza 1 the very first word, Against, gives us the first clue to the plight of the thistle. It has many things which are against it, such as the rubber tongues of cows and the hoeing hands of men. The fact that the hoeing hands of men is used as an example of one of the thistles enemies, is ironic, because even though the men have hoes and mean to destroy, the thistles still survive. The use of spike in line 2 gives us a sharp, jagged image of artillery. Crackle in line 3 gives us this same effect. These war-like images are continued throughout the poem. The use of the word crackle gives us the idea that the thistle is tough, not gently opening, but crackling open, as if preparing for battle. In stanza two the poet introduces the idea of revenge. (Every one a revengeful burst) The poet uses the word burst to describe the purple exploded head of the thistle, and the spikes that protrude from this. The use of the word resurrection in line 2 supports the idea of the thistles never really dying. The grasped fistful of splintered weapons and Icelandic frost also refers to the head of the thistle, and how it appears to be like a hand that has grabbed a handful of weapons. The introduction of Icelandic frost brings in the first idea of the war between the Scots and the Vikings. Thrust up brings in the idea that the nettles are like the soldiers sent by nature to fight against man. In stanza two our idea of the thistles being sent by nature is continued. (From the underground stain of decayed Viking This is a reference to the Scots/ Vikings war again, but also a reference to the amazing ability of thistles to get nutrient from any soil, even using the nutrients of the dead body of a Viking. Another war-like image is apparent in the plume of blood referring to the plume of feathers traditionally worn by soldiers in a war. The final stanza begins in contrast to the other stanzas. These strong, unbeatable thistles are growing old and dying. They grow grey, describing how they age before death. But in the second line feud is used, describing how even though the thistle has died the war is not over. Their sons appear, ready to continue the battle over the land. They are stiff with weapons, making them seem unbeatable, almost over-laden with weapons. This poem is full of war-like images and references to historical events. It describes the way thistles never seem to die, and will keep fighting against man until they win. This poem is deeply emotional and metaphorical.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The History of Buckman Company Essay -- Laboratories Water Treatment P

The History of Buckman Company Founded in 1945 by Dr. Stanley Buckman Buckman started the company in Memphis, Tennessee, with five employees in a small building located on land that was once a lumberyard. Offices and laboratories were located on the first floor of the building, and a 50-gallon black iron chemical reactor and a steam boiler were placed in the basement. The 50-gallon black iron chemical reactor was sufficient to supply the initial order for 20 gallons of a microbicide, trade name BSM-11, to the company’s first customer – Whiting Paper Company. Three years later, BSM-11 and its derivatives had become the industry standard for microorganism control. Soon a new production facility was built next door and Buckman Laboratories of Canada was formed. During the 1950s, the company’s customer base expanded to include the leather, paint, sugar processing, agriculture, paint, coatings and plastics industries. During the 1960s, new manufacturing and sales companies were formed in Mexico and Belgium. The expansion during the 1970s followed with the opening of sales and manufacturing companies in South Africa and Brazil and a sales company in Australia. New products were introduced for water treatment, ranging from swimming pools to fresh water, and a new international headquarters housing all corporate activities, including Research and Development, were built in Memphis. In 1978, Dr. Stanley Buckman died of a heart attack in his office His son, Robert (Bob), became the new chairman and CEO. In 1945, Buckman Laboratories started with one product, a 50-gallon process vessel and four employees in a small house in Memphis, Tennessee. Today, Buckman is a global business producing over 500 different products and employing over 1,300 people in over 70 countries. The company was originally founded on its unique ability to create and manufacture innovative solutions for controlling the growth of microorganisms. Ever since its inception, Buckman believes that a specialty chemical supplier should listen to and anticipate customer needs and then respond with innovative and unique solutions. Buckman will continue in the future as it has in the past providing value-added services and products to improve the efficiencies and products. 2. PROVIDE A SHORT DISCUSSION OF THE KEY MANAGEMENT OF THE COMPANY. DIS... ...y for all customer information and forums should be developed to include customers. Buckman’s idea was to bring knowledge to the learner rather than bring the learner to the knowledge. Since Buckman employees or â€Å"learners† speak nearly a dozen languages, the frontier issue of instantaneous translation is immanent. The idea of when someone posts a note in English, people in Japan will be able to read it and respond in Japanese, which in turn people can read and respond in Portuguese, Swedish, Dutch, French, etc. Therefore, creating a â€Å"universal† culture within the organization will ensure employee buy-in into the K’Netix system. In the end, the system’s success rests on the people and not the tools. It is 90 percent culture change and 10 percent technology. Driving these changes solely based on technology and technology budgets will not be successful. The employees are who bring about the change. Therefore, by implementing focus groups that include different levels of employees will bring about the change in a successful manner. Additionally, by revamping the mission statement to reflect the culture of the company will give the employees and management a sense of direction.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Mba Exam Papers in Operation and Production Management

i will give you full payment of 90 dollar if my below questions answers received from your side with chart and table where its required to fulfill my required. SUB: OPERATION MANAGEMENT 1. How would operations strategy for a service industry be different if any from that for a manufacturing industry? (It’s an example & explains) 2. Consider the following two mutually exclusive projects. The net cash flows are given below: NET CASH FLOWS years PROJECT A FROM PROJECT B 0 – Rs. 1,00,000 – Rs. 1,00,000/- 1 + Rs. 30,000 + Rs. 15,000/- 2 + Rs. 35,000 + Rs. 7,500/- 3 + Rs. 40,000 + Rs. 20,000/- 4 + Rs. 45,000 + Rs. 22,500/- 5 + Rs. 25,000/- 6 + Rs. 27,500/- 7 + Rs. 30,000/- 8 + Rs. 32,500/- If the desired rate of return is 10% which project should be chosen? 3. What are the levels of aggregation in forecasting for a manufacturing organization? How should this hierarchy of forecasts be linked and used? AN ISO 9001 : 2008 CERTIFIED INTERNATIONAL B-SCHOOL 4. How would fore casting be useful for operations in a BPO (Business processes outsourcing) unit? What factors may be important for this industry?Discuss. 5. A good work study should be followed by good supervision for getting good results. Explain with an example. 6. What is job evaluation? Can it be alternatively used as job ranking? How does one ensure that job evaluation evaluates the job and not the man? Explain with examples? 7. What is the impact of technology on jobs? What are the similarities between job enlargement & job rotation? Discuss the importance of training in the content of job redesign? Explain with examples? 8. What is internet connectivity? Feature article about  Production ManagementHow is it important in to days business would with respect to materials requirement planning & purchasing? Explain with examples? 9. Would a project management organization be different from an organization for regular manufacturing in what ways? Examples. 10. How project evaluation different from project appraisal? Explain with examples. SUBJECT: Production Management 1. What are the different types of production/operation system? Where would each one of them be applicable? Give practical examples. 2. What is flexibility in operations function?Can it be one of the strategic weapons? Explain your response. 3. What is the distinction between accounting profit & economic profit? How is such a distinction linked with the concept of opportunity cost? 4. What is the difference between the Scanlon & rucker plans? 5. Productivity improvement is not a one shot project Do you agree with this statement? Discuss 6. Is supply chain management a philo sophy? Discuss 7. What is the aim of production planning? 8. What is forecasting? Elements of forecasting & Methods of forecasting?

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Past Paper Questions

Principles Of Accounts May/June 2007 SECTION 1 Answer ALL questions in this section. 1. (a) List THREE distinguishing features of a partnership concern. (3 marks) (b) Skerritt and Cymbal are in Partnership sharing profits and losses in the ratio of their capital balances. The following balances were left over in their books after the preparation of the Trading and Profit and Loss Account on September 30, 2006. Capital Accounts: Skerritt $30 000 Cymbal $40 000 Current Accounts: Skerritt $(300) Cymbal $1 500 Drawings Skerritt $12 000 Cymbal $5 000Motor Vehicle at cost $43 000 Buildings at cost $232 000 Debtors $23 300 Creditors $17 000 Stock at September 30, 2006 $18 000 Cash at bank $27 000 Additional information to be taken into consideration: (1) The net profit for the year ended September 30, 2006 is $250 000. (2) Each partner earns an annual salary of $60 000. (3) Interest on capital is to be paid at the rate of 5% per annum. (4) Interest on drawings is to be charged at the rate o f 10% per annum. Skerritt drew cash on October 31, 2005 and Cymbal drew cash on March 31, 2006. 5) Accumulated depreciation on Motor Vehicles to September 30, 2006 is $8 600.Required: (i) Prepare the Profit and Loss Appropriation Account for Skerritt and Cymbal for the year ended September 30, 2006. (6 marks) (ii) Prepare the Current Accounts of Skerritt and Cymbal on September 30, 2006. ( 5 marks) (iii) Prepare the Balance Sheet of Skerritt and Cymbal as at September 30, 2006, showing the working capital. (Do not show details of the current accounts in the Balance Sheet. Transfer only the closing balances from the partner's current accounts. ) (6 marks)

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Trunble Low-Security Prison essays

Trunble Low-Security Prison essays Trunble low-security prison, located in a backwater of Florida, is home to a trio of former lawyers. The self-styled Brethren, comprising a Federal Judge, a Justice of the Peace and a Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, arbitrate on behalf of the jail's inmates. Their daily meetings in the law library provide a cover for a highly successful mail scam: advertisements are placed in the personal columns of gay publications asking middle-aged men to correspond with young men. Those who reply are then blackmailed with the threat of exposure, thus potentially ruining their careers, their marriages and their social standing. Thousands of miles away in Washington it is election time. Teddy Maynard, chief of the CIA, hatches a plan to secure the presidency for a candidate of his own choosing, and Congressman Aaron Lake from Arizona seems the perfect choice. A new hardline leader is emerging in Russia and so Maynard determines to groom Aaron Lake to take on this thread to US security. Thus an obscure senator finds himself with unlimited financial backing as he makes a bid to become the world's most powerful leader. His election message, that America is vulnerable to attack, is reinforced by a series of terrorist bombings. The ensuing deaths of many Americans is the catalyst for Lake's rise to fame. How the world of political rivalry and the machinations to three disgraced judges collide, draws The Brethren to its exciting climax. ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Press Release Reedsy opens to authors on Monday October 13th 2014

Press Release Reedsy opens to authors on Monday October 13th 2014 Press Release: Reedsy opens to authors on Monday October 13th 2014 â€Å"The best editors, designers, and marketers no longer work for big publishing companies. Instead, they are striking out on their own and working as freelancers,† says trader, investor, writer and entrepreneur, James Altucher.The richness of the freelancer landscape is no secret, but many don’t understand the true impact of having so much talent, so easily accessible: authors can now achieve the same level of quality they would get with a traditional publisher, without sacrificing royalties or creative control. Navigating such a wealth of freelancer talent can be daunting; how can authors meet the quality demands of their audiences and bring their work to a level of professional polish previously unseen in the realm of independent publication?Enter Reedsy. Or rather, enter the freelancers featured on the new platform, launching this month.â€Å"Our freelancers define the difference between vanity publishing and being an independent author,† says Reedsy co-fou nd Ricardo Fayet. â€Å"They are the ones who have turned self-publishing into something serious, professional- a real alternative to finding a publisher.†Reedsy is based on the idea that great authors telling great stories must be joined by equally talented editors and designers in order to produce professional-caliber books. This is why the London-based (though global-minded) startup launched two weeks ago by privately inviting a select group of professional editors and designers to set up their profiles.â€Å"On Monday October 13th, Reedsy will make these profiles public†, Ricardo explains, â€Å"regrouping them on a marketplace. Authors will be able to browse Reedsy, filter their search according to their needs and genre, and instantly message the freelancers they want to reach out to.†Reedsy has been vetting all the freelancers invited to the site, checking their profiles and displaying only those with experience, certifications, and good recommendations.Th e â€Å"streamlined self-publishing solution† can proudly count on the support of the Alliance of Independent Authors, who recognises the work Reedsy has been doing and the value it will add to the publishing ecosystem. Reedsy’s intentions have also been approved by the Society of Authors and The Literary Consultancy.Reedsy will not stop there. CEO Emmanuel Nataf reveals that the company plans to release project management tools that aid collaboration between authors and freelancers. â€Å"Emailing manuscripts and chapter revisions is a thing of the past,† Emmanuel says. â€Å"Reedsy will provide a place to gather these documents and allow for effortless collaboration.†In the meantime, Reedsy aims at becoming what Emmanuel describes as "the trusted network independent authors automatically turn to when looking for a quality editor or designer.†Reminder: Reedsy was founded in January 2014 by Emmanuel Nataf, Richard Fayet, Matthew Cobb and Vincent Dur and, and has been financially backed by Seedcamp and DC Thomson. It has been featured in The Bookseller,  Techcrunch  and Words With JAM.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Ways to De-Stress in College

Ways to De-Stress in College Knowing how to destress can make all the difference between a crazed college experience and one you feel you have control over. Sometimes, however, knowing that you need to destress can be different than actually knowing how to destress. Check out this list of tips- theres sure to be one (or more) for nearly everyone! Relaxing Ways to Destress Breathe deeply.  It only takes a few minutes, but it can really help you achieve more positive mental health. Focus on inhaling and exhaling while trying to let all the stress in your brain slowly melt away.Put your headphones in and listen to some music.  Closing your eyes and relaxing while listening to some music can do wonders for your brain. Tuning out the world for even just five minutes can be a great way to lower your stress and increase your mental clarity.Daydream about your life after  graduation.  College can be overwhelming because there is so much to do all of the time. Let yourself daydream for a few minutes about what your dream life will be like after graduation. Dont worry about how youll make everything happen; just imagine the best possible scenario and the goals youre working so hard to achieve.Look through your personal pics online.  You can check out things youve posted on Facebook or elsewhere. Looking through your personal pics can warm your heart a nd cool your stress. Look through the pics you have on your phone.  Most people take a ton of pictures with their cell phone- and then forget all thats on there. Take a quick trip down memory lane while also giving yourself a break and a few minutes to relax.Read motivational quotations about college and education.  Sometimes, college life can simply seem- if not be- overwhelming. Give yourself some perspective by reading over some  motivational quotations about college  that can help remind you why you work so hard in the first place.Come up with a list of 10 things youve accomplished today/this week.  Sometimes people can get so focused on what they have left to do that theyve forgotten all the things theyve already done. Lower your stress by writing down at least 10 things youve accomplished today or this week. You just might surprise yourself!Take a quick shower.  Most of the time you shower to get clean. Today, however, take a shower to just relax yourself. Let the hot water massage your shoulders and try to imagine your stress being rinsed off and going down the drain, too. Take a quick bath.  If youre lucky enough to live in a place that has bathtubs, a quick bath can be a magical escape. Squirt some soap (or even shampoo) in for some bubbles and pretend youre somewhere far, far away.Wash your face.  If you dont have time for a bath or a shower, a quick face-wash can help wake you up, making you feel refreshed, and relax you- even if its just for a minute or two. If you dont have your soap handy, a quick splash of water will do.Give yourself a mani/pedi.  You dont have to escape to a nail salon to feel fancy. Grab some polish and give yourself a visual pick-me-up as a way to destress and focus on something fun and funky for a few minutes.Address the thing that is stressing you out the most.  Chances are, amidst all your stressors, theres at least one or two things that really stand out. Do at least one thing to address the biggest stress factor(s) in your life- even if its deciding not to worry about it until tomorrow. Active Ways to Destress Do some stretching.  You dont have to be a yoga teacher to know how to stretch. Whether youre in the library, the quad, or your room, a few minutes of slow, deep stretching can improve your mood immensely.Do some  yoga specifically catered to stress reduction.  Of course, if you do love yoga, you know how helpful some good stretching and breathing can be for your health. Take what youve learned in a yoga class and apply it at a time you need it most.Go for a walk.  It doesnt matter where you go- in fact, an aimless walk might be better than one with tasks assigned to it. Remove yourself from a stressful situation and enjoy a few minutes out and about.Go for a quick run.  Grab your shoes, throw on some running clothes, and get your stress out while hitting the pavement (or track or treadmill). A quick, high-intensity run can lower your stress and increase your energy for hours afterward.Go for a bike ride.  Who says you can only use your bike to get to and from class? Go f or a quick ride thats more fun than functional. Ride a skateboard.  If youre able to ride a skateboard on (or near) campus, this pastime can be a great break from your regular, stressful college routine.Clean up your desk.  Alright, it sounds lame, but wouldnt it be nice to start your homework with a nice, clean, organized desk? A clear space leads to a clear mind and cleaning up your desk can do wonders for your productivity.Clean up your room.  Even people who like clean rooms often dont like actually cleaning them. Set a timer for five minutes and see how much you can get done in that time. Youll get yourself moving, get your things organized, and get your head away from the source of your stress for at least a few minutes.Clean out your backpack.  Boring? Maybe. Well, actually ... totally boring. But doing something completely mindless that will result in feeling productive can be a great way to focus on something other than your stress.Do  some laundry.  You may not want to do it, but think of the benefits: Youll get yourself out of your current, stress-inducing project, youll get yourself moving, youll get a mental break from your more stressful tasks, and youll finally get some clean clothes. Dance.  For some, dancing can be a great escape from the stressors of everyday life. Dance to your hearts content for a few minutes before returning to your regularly scheduled tasks.Go for a walk and buy a cup of tea.  Sure, you may have some tea in your room, but sometimes the extra little splurge can be worth it. Youll get moving while also getting a break.Go for a walk and buy a cup of coffee.  If its looking like itll be a long night, go walk to the campus coffee shop and splurge on a cup o joe. Youll get your blood pumping while also getting a little caffeine in your system.Go for a walk and buy a healthy snack.  Sure, those french fries look delicious, but opting for a piece of fruit and some whole wheat toast from the dining hall will make you feel better, both physically and mentally.Go for a walk and treat yourself to, well, a treat.  Alright, lets be honest here: Sometimes you just need a candy bar. Take the long way to the vending machines before selecting a spe cial treat to pick you up and lower your stress, even if its just for a little while. Social Ways to Destress Call a friend and catch up for a few minutes.  Checking in with someone you hold near and dear can be great for your heart. Get the latest from your friend while also sneaking in a nice mental break, too.Send a friend an email.  Chances are that theres at least one friend you need to catch up with, but you may not have time right now for a phone call. Send a quick email letting them know the latest and greatest in your life. And if youre lucky, the next time you need a break, there will be an email from them, too!Send your parents an email.  Face it- you dont talk to your parents enough while youre away at school and theyd like you to  keep in touch more. If a phone call isnt going to work for you right now, zip them a quick email about whats going on with you.Send your sibling(s) an email.  Many students get so caught up in their lives in college that they forget to check in with their siblings. Take a moment or two to send along an update to your brother(s) and/or sister( s)- you might be surprised at how much better doing so makes you feel. Go hang out with other folks for a few minutes.  Even if youre on a tight deadline and feel like you cant spare a few minutes, guess what? You can. Spending a few minutes de-stressing with friends can help your productivity during the rest of the night.Find some friends and have everyone give everyone else a quick massage.  The power of a 3-minute neck and shoulder rub should never, ever be underestimated. Grab several folks, line up, and have everyone rub each others shoulders for a few minutes.Kiss your significant other.  The power of human touch can always help you destress. Grab your honey and enjoy a few minutes of lip-locking before getting back to what you have to do.Look at the events happening on campus this weekend.  If youre feeling overwhelmed with what you have to do between now and the weekend, looking at what options await you at the end of the tunnel can be a great way to destress. Check out an events calendar online or go for a quick walk and actually take t he time to read the posters and flyers everyone puts up all over the place. Make fun plans for the weekend.  If taking a break from campus is what your brain needs, make some fun plans for the weekend. Check out a local city guide or call a friend to see what the scoop is. Fun Ways to Destress Watch your favorite scene from your favorite movie on  YouTube,  Hulu, etc.  Even if you dont own your favorite movie, chances are you can find it online somewhere. Treat yourself to some old-fashioned escapism and tune out for a few minutes.Search for funny clips on YouTube.  Things go viral so quickly that theres always new stuff to watch. Put yourself on a time limit and watch ridiculous things to your hearts content.Create a new  Pandora  channel.  If you really need to work, incorporate ways to destress into your process. Create a new Pandora channel that will energize and refocus you as you work.Treat yourself to some new songs on iTunes.  Buying a few songs for a few bucks can perk you up, give you something fun to look forward to, and let you feel happy instead of stressed- both during and after your purchase.Play around on  Facebook.  Of course, the key here is only to do so for a few minutes. Losing 30 minutes when youre stressed can sometimes add more f uel to the fire. But spending a few minutes poking around can be a great break for your brain. Play around on  Twitter.  Even if youre new to Twitter, seeing what the buzz is at any point in time can be a fun diversion.Play around on  Flickr.  If youre a visual person, looking at cool pictures of things that make you happy can be a nice uplift for your heart- and a nice decrease for your blood pressure.Play around on  StumbleUpon.  StumbleUpon can be enjoyable because it takes you to new sites you may never have heard of but that other users, with interests similar to yours, have recommended. Its a great way to surf the web and find new sites without getting lost in a ton of junk.Read the national news headlines.  Reading the national news can be a great break for your mind while also helping to keep you informed of current events. If youre really lucky, the headlines you read today can be used during a class conversation tomorrow.Read the news headlines in your local town.  You may be so busy living your college life that you dont know what current events are in your new local town. Find out a little more about your home-away-from-home by checking out the local paper online. Read news headlines from your hometown.  What better way to get out of your little stress bubble at school than to learn about the happenings back in your hometown? Even the ads for local restaurants you havent thought about for months might cheer you up a bit.Play around on a gossip website for a few minutes (like  People).  Catching up on the latest celebrity news can be entertaining and provide a fun few minutes of escape.Catch up on the latest sports news.  Most students spend so much time reading homework in college that skimming the latest from the sports world isnt really an option. Check out whats happening with your favorite team, favorite sport, or favorite athlete for a few minutes.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

State sovereignty 'led inexorably to the Holocaust and atomic warfare' Essay

State sovereignty 'led inexorably to the Holocaust and atomic warfare' - Essay Example Two major historical traumas that occurred in the 20th century – the Holocaust and atomic warfare, both involved countries that exercised its full sovereign rights which led many nations to the Second World War. Around six million Jews died in the hands of the Nazi, a political party which represented the legal government of Germany in 1933 (Florida Center for Instructional Technology, 2011). On the other hand, over 200,000 Japanese civilians died when the United States aircraft dropped atomic bombs in the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki -- a decisive action of the United States to put an immediate end of war and prevented further loss of lives (The Atomic Archive, 2011). Looking back at the scale of atrocities done by totalitarian and militarist governments over the past century, the role and obligation of the world community to intervene in the state affairs during humanitarian crises confronts a crucial challenge to the idea of state sovereignty. In today’s globalized community, the act of a state or group of states to use force in order to protect the lives of people other than their own citizen defies the main tenant on the codification of state sovereignty – that is the right of a state to exercise its ultimate authority within its territory. Viewpoint & Assumption Can the catastrophic events of the Holocaust and atomic warfare be attributed to the absolute exercise of state sovereignty? To examine this position, a careful analysis of the sovereignty principle and an exploration of the historical events are needed in order to establish the claim. This is rightly done so, because to say that the concept of state sovereignty contributed to the escalation of these catastrophic events of the Second World War is to recognize the justification of humanitarian intervention – the deliberate action of the international community to prevent human rights abuses of governments to its citizen. In this regard, the paper argues that while humanitarian intervention during the Second World War could have prevented the violence of authoritarian states, most nations could not readily commit to wage war because of its social, political and economic cost. The intervention itself can be rightfully justified; because the moment both Japan and Germany entered to war, it already submitted its sovereignty and challenged other nation’s sovereign rights. However, the international community is hesitant in intervening with authoritarian states not only because of social and economic implications of war, but also because no interest was at stake for these nations. The same issue persists on the humanitarian intervention or the lack of it, done in Libya, Syria, and Rwanda. To establish this viewpoint, a historical background of the Second World War events and the prevailing belief about the exercise of sovereignty will provide a better context for the argument. Then, a detailed discussion on the basic principles of sta te sovereignty will establish a clearer understanding for the idea of sovereign right. Following this discussion is the careful examination of the social, political, and economic reasons for the indecision and delay to intervene with German and Japanese powers. The Parallel Events of WWII While it may be argued that the holocaust and the atomic warfare are two distinct events that led to the loss of millions of lives, the main idea is that Germany and Japan were both authoritarian states that touted its some of its people to commit human rights violence during the Second World War. Hitler ordered the extermination of Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals, and the mentally challenged while the Imperial Japanese Army under Emperor Hirohito committed killings against millions of civilians and prisoners of war in China, Korea, and other Asian countries. While these atrocities were committed, it must be noted that the social and economic conditions of major nations such as the United States,

Friday, October 18, 2019

Car industry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Car industry - Essay Example choosing cars is because the automotive industry forms the economic sector that is most symbolic of the modern times as well as the environmental consequences of modernity. The effect of the automobile, as well as the auto-centered transport system on U.S.’s ecology and the world over has been large. From the production process to its end of life, automobiles consume resources; pollute land, air and water in addition to transforming space. The production of cars needs collecting many quantities of metals, plastic, glass and rubber plus other materials, and then assembling tens of thousands of vehicles through machine and human labor (McGranahan & Murray 2012, p. 45). This process of production itself uses gigantic amount of energy, plus the factory output creates its own range of pollutants. Once the automobile is on the road, they are the main consumers of gas and oil, which stimulates deeper drilling, transporting plus refining of petroleum products so as the meet the increasing demands. Because the internal combustion engine still dominates automobile propulsion, vehicles give out huge volumes of pollution in form of noise, air emission, disp osable parts and used oil (Melosi n.d., p. 1). Scrapped or derelict vehicles pile up once vehicles conclude their productive lives. Beyond their roles as artifacts and polluters, cars have transformed towns and the entire country more than any other technology ever created by human beings. In spite of their dramatic effect, the ecological history of automobile is hard to depict (Gasana et al., 2012, p. 36). This is because, over the years, vehicles have be considered both as a benefactor and also a threat, as a advantage to freedom, individualism and liberation and as the bane of contemporary society. By the turn of the 20th century what had only been a technical curiosity, a noise-belching menace to humans and a rich man’s plaything, started to gain acceptance (Melosi n.d., p. 1). Optimists touted the automobile as a

Childhood Prejudice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Childhood Prejudice - Essay Example This will be elaborated and pointed out in the succeeding pages. According to Piaget, the stages of cognitive development, plays an important role in the learning ability of a child. Learning process involves the introduction of a stimulus for orientation and it teaches the child the manner of response in accordance with what is learned. Furthermore, cognition involves a schema that follows a chronological order that allows no interruption, otherwise will create an adverse effect. This involves the encoding of the perceived stimuli followed by the storing of the data encoding in the memory. Finally the retrieval of such memory when the need arise thus completing the entire process. This cycle follows a patter in processing information along with the other psychological and biological skills. The impact of this process is also determined by the social and environmental factors present, together with the constant reinforcement aid of education and authorities. Should there be a flaw, disruption or inadequacies to that process, learning becomes defi cient. Thus the child begins to form biases or preferences. According to Frances E. Aboud (1988), prejudice is not genetically inclined to happen, as it happens along with the development of the cognitive skills. In her book entitled Children and Prejudice, she asserted that at a very juvenile age, beginning 3 to 4 years, "children already notices racial distinctions, absorbs racially related images and assumptions, begin to learn and express racist ideologies (Aboud. 1988). Biases are formed due to the primary obvious aspect particularly noticed by the child at first glance, like the colour of the skin. The child absorbs everything that is perceived by the senses like sponges, and because they are incapable of discerning the right from wrong, therefore requires guidance from authority figures such as the parents. Thus the acquisition of preference among children is parallel with that of the parent's. The research further concluded that the meagre cognitive skills as well as the predisposition to ethnic preferences becomes gradually diminish as the child learns the distinction between virtues and mere peripheral. But this conjecture was opposed by Author Rupert Brown (1995), emphasizing that prejudice do not disappear with adulthood. In his book Prejudice: it's a social psychology, he said; "thirdly, and Aboud (1988) has noted, there had been some marked changes in measured prejudice level in adults over the past 40 years and yet recent studies of children's ethnic prejudice have shown that children below the age of 10 still continues to manifest various kinds of bias and discrimination" (p. 154). Nevertheless, he agreed to Aboud's finding about the three-stage model in which cognition is governed solely by perception and affective process occurring until the age of five. To strengthen her claim about the correlation of cognitive development to the development of prejudice in children, Aboud, together with Amato came up with a book in 2001 entitled Developmental and socialization influence of prejudice on inter-group bias, in which it claims the existence of prejudice even at the time when the child begins to form social organization. As earlier stated

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Contract Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 7

Contract Law - Essay Example This essay talks about the case of Raffia Khan, an interior designer has a number of contractual issues for which she needs your advice. Her business has been suffering as a result of the credit crunch so she is trying to make, and save as much money as possible.Raffia submitted her unmarked envelope with her tender of  £3000 by the time and date specified. After the closing date, she heard that Fix It Up Ltd was awarded the job at a price of  £4000. A year ago Raffia lent  £1000 to her friend Angelo. Last month, she asked for this money back, he told her that he could not afford the full amount but instead asked if she would accept  £700 in full satisfaction of the debt. Raffia agreed to this and took the payment. However, she would now like the further  £300 owed.It is necessary to consider whether the Bradford Institute for Learning has any duty to accept her tender. This will involve considering whether the advert in the paper amounts to an invitation to treat or should be regarded as an offer to give the work to the lowest bidder. It will also be necessary to consider whether the Institute has an obligation to accept the lowest quote because of the advert in the paper. It will be necessary to consider the law in relation to the part payment of a debt, to determine whether Raffia would be stopped from reclaiming the full amount as she had accepted the part payment in full satisfaction of the debt. It should be possible to advise Raffia with regard to any potential claim she might have.

How have the wars changed womens lives in the Congo Puechguirbal Essay

How have the wars changed womens lives in the Congo Puechguirbal argues that Congolese women must be a part of the peace process. Do you think this would change things If so, how If not, why - Essay Example During the war in Congo, men left their women and families and moved to the forests to defend their communities. The women were left to care for their families which proved very difficult without the companion of their husbands. No economic activity or farming was taking place during this time of war and the stored food run out. Women were faced by hunger and they were left in pain watching their children die out of hunger. A report from the UN showed that 12% of the deaths during the war were caused by lack of food. This war left many women childless and without husbands since most of them were killed in the forest during the war and this has brought the greatest social inequality that ever existed in the world. Sexual violation was rampant during this war as the women were forced to have sex since they were armless and at the same time harmless. Women were forced to have sex to protect their children from being killed and this led to traumatization among women and an increased spread of sexually transmitted diseases. No medical care was operating during the war and hence the women were not treated after the sexual assaults. The results were unwanted children leading to an end of the happy families that existed(Gettleman, 2007,p.7). The war has created a situation that has led to women living in fear and with no trust on their military. Women have also been burdened with the responsibility of taking care of their children since the number of men reduced massively and the report by UN showed that 41.3% of all the women in Condo are single mothers(Gettleman, 2007,p.7). Despite the severe impacts, the Congo people have been positive in rebuilding their nation through peace-making processes. The united Nation in conjunction with government has played a big role in the process that has involved not only the political giants but also the people on the ground. Puechguirbal

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Contract Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 7

Contract Law - Essay Example This essay talks about the case of Raffia Khan, an interior designer has a number of contractual issues for which she needs your advice. Her business has been suffering as a result of the credit crunch so she is trying to make, and save as much money as possible.Raffia submitted her unmarked envelope with her tender of  £3000 by the time and date specified. After the closing date, she heard that Fix It Up Ltd was awarded the job at a price of  £4000. A year ago Raffia lent  £1000 to her friend Angelo. Last month, she asked for this money back, he told her that he could not afford the full amount but instead asked if she would accept  £700 in full satisfaction of the debt. Raffia agreed to this and took the payment. However, she would now like the further  £300 owed.It is necessary to consider whether the Bradford Institute for Learning has any duty to accept her tender. This will involve considering whether the advert in the paper amounts to an invitation to treat or should be regarded as an offer to give the work to the lowest bidder. It will also be necessary to consider whether the Institute has an obligation to accept the lowest quote because of the advert in the paper. It will be necessary to consider the law in relation to the part payment of a debt, to determine whether Raffia would be stopped from reclaiming the full amount as she had accepted the part payment in full satisfaction of the debt. It should be possible to advise Raffia with regard to any potential claim she might have.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Language that we use Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Language that we use - Essay Example In the present world thousands of languages exist. People from different parts of the world speak different languages. The Chinese speak Mandarin, Australians speak English, Arabians speak Arabic, the Argentines speak Spanish, etc. How well others the language you use defines you and not the language you use. Non-verbal communication has the same importance as the verbal. If a person is in foreign land and not familiar with the local language, he interacts with other through non-verbal movements or in other words signs. Deaf and dumb persons use the sign language. It helps them in communicating with others and makes their lives a lesser difficult. Human beings are different from other animal, that's why they are called as social animals. This is because they can think and most importantly can communicate easily with each other. To reduce the gap between geographical areas and the curiousness of man to know what's on the other side has made him to invent different languages. Thousands of years ago they started communicating with each other. In 3500BC alphabets were invented in the written form. This helped in the introduction of postal service. This way communication between different parties was made. The Chinese invented paper and the book came by 100AD. Slowly all the writings were entered into the books. Books were best for storing information for long time without causing much damage. Newspapers were introduced into the Europe by 1450AD.Words or short phrases can exhibit the distinction between purely informative and partially expressive uses of language. Many of the most common words and phrases of any language have both a literal or descriptive meaning that refers to the way things are and an emotive meaning that expresses some (positive or negative) feeling about them. Thus, the choice of which word to use in making a statement can be used in hopes of evoking a particular emotional response. This is a natural function of ordinary language, of course. We often do wish to convey some portion of our feelings along with information. There is a good deal of poetry in everyday communication, and poetry without emotive meaning is pretty dull. But when we are primarily interested in establishing the truth-as we are when assessing the logical merits of an argument-the use of words laden with emotive meaning can easily distract us from our purpose. Language is not static it is organic. It grows out of usage and need. What's important is not whether a word is being used in its original meaning, but whether it is understood within the cultural milieu it is being used in. Words come and go and when deemed necessary add to their meanings in any language that is vibrant. It is only a word's roots that remain fixed not the word itself. If words cannot evolve to meet cultural needs, perceived or otherwise, the language is doomed. One of the difficulties many people face is understanding the language. If a person lands up in a foreign land and not familiar with the local language faces many problems. The same has happened to Tan and her mother in the essay "Mother Tongue". Her mother was not familiar with English language and hardly understands it. This became a major problem to her. She can't communicate with others and cannot build friendly relationships with her neighbours. She can't go to the market alone since she cannot speak English

Monday, October 14, 2019

Personal Statement Essay Example for Free

Personal Statement Essay I was asked to winter formal my freshman year of high school by the Air Force JROTC commander who just happened to be a senior. Having the head-person in charge even talk to me at all was a big deal back then. I still don’t know how it happened, but with a bit of dumb luck and a lot of late nights out, we started dating. Danail and I were on top of the world. There was nothing we couldn’t accomplish if we set our minds to it, and so we did. We were always out on adventures. You could catch us hiking, backpacking, or just hanging out with friends, but we always had huge smiles on our faces. Slowly getting to know each other better, and planning our futures together, one important detail I found out is that during her sophomore year of high school she was diagnosed with ovarian cancer. She was in remission, but at the expense of having to endure extensive treatments of chemotherapy and radiation. Halfway through my sophomore year (we were still dating) she was re-diagnosed with malignant tumors in her abdomen. She went through several hospitals and even more treatment plans, keeping her optimism high and still living to love life. Fast forward to this last summer when at 2am on June 12th, 2012 at the Cancer Treatment Center of America in Arizona, our last hope, Danail Lynn Frey took her last breath. She meant more to me than I could ever comprehend at the time, and my life was suddenly derailed in an instant. Immediately after Danail passed away, I felt abandoned and without purpose. I had shaped my life around this one individual and for the first time in my life, I didn’t know what I wanted. Danail was a nursing student at ASU, and we had always planned on me becoming a doctor, and then us joining an organization that benefits third world countries. Having to change my original plans of becoming a neurosurgeon to shape my future with someone else was definitely not an easy decision. Now I didn’t know what to do, and I had to get out. With that being the first summer that I wasn’t packed full of already scheduled activities, I ended up learning how to scuba dive and I went on a trip to San Carlos, Mexico. This trip was just the chance I needed to get out of the painfully familiar places at home and really let me think about what I was going to do. I realized that I had to regain a sense of self and maybe even some independence. Having witnessed first-hand Danail’s amazing oncology team provide for her the care she most certainly deserved, I was able to better fully realize that I knew being in healthcare, more specifically being a physician, was still in store for my future. On top of that, being in the Civil Air Patrol’s emergency services team and already having a background in search and rescue attending the National Emergency Services Academy in Indiana, I decided to combine the two. This thought process started a new personal track revolving around my future that ignited a new fire and passion having been able to better understand the realities of medicine. With that combination, my new focus all geared toward bettering our current healthcare system and looking into international rescue and relief with organizations like the WHO. All of these events helped shape what I want to be, and ultimately, at the end of the day, I know I will realistically change my mind again. Currently here is where I am at. I know it may sound eager, unrealistic, and possibly even pretentious to say this with the only one-specialty or track that doctors are supposed to choose, but maybe eventually not. I would like to practice in multiple fields that I believe are all connected to make the ultimate healer. I have interned as an ophthalmic technician learning about eyes and optics, which has really intrigued me. However, I have also always been fascinated by human behavior and the inner workings of the mind and plan to potentially major in neuroscience. Because of all the second-hand chemo and radiation tragic memories that I experienced, I want to bring alternative cures to cancer into tested clinical environments studying oncology. On top of that, I will always be in the rescue settings. So, trauma and world health medicine are also on my mind. I want to always build upon my education and health experience to incorporate that knowledge into a practice of its own. If Danail taught me anything, it would have been how to love, and that if I set my mind to something, especially as important as medicine, I need to remain true to my goals and use her as my inspiration to achieve them.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Public Service Broadcasting in Health Communication

Public Service Broadcasting in Health Communication Role of Public Service Broadcasting in Health Communication in Rural India – A Historical and Functional Perspective (SHRUTI GOEL ALBERT ABRAHAM) Introduction Health communication has achieved a distinguished identity in the discourse of Media and Development since health care is a vital indicator of development. ‘Health is both a public and merit good and Health care being so basic to the well-being and productivity of society, access to it needs to be universal’[i]. The international agencies actively working on healthcare, hygiene and sanitation emphasize the importance of effective health communication strategies to achieve their objectives. Health communication is intended to bridge the knowledge gap in the healthcare practices and to promote positive action to make the people healthy. ‘Communication that is engaging and empowering, and provides individuals and populations with evidence-based options for positive action is critical to enhancing health literacy in society, thereby enabling its movement towards better public health outcomes’. [ii] In India, since independence there are significant efforts to sensitize people on the health issues. In these endeavours, the public service broadcasting (All India Radio and Doordarshan) has contributed commendably, as paying special attention to health and family welfare is one of the established objectives of Prasarbharati. At the same time, our country has pitiable records in the health care index in terms of international standards. In this context, this study critically explores the role of the Public Service Broadcasting in India within the historical and functional perspectives of Health Communication. Role of PSB in the Development Discourse Generally, the market driven media scenario is highly reluctant to take the development issues seriously. P Sainath (2007) says, â€Å"The fundamental characteristic of our media is the growing disconnect between mass media and mass reality.† That is why India’s majority of the population doesn’t make news. The mass media which are funded and controlled by advertisers would only remain loyal to them. As Chomsky and Herman (1994) puts it in their propaganda model, the media effectively serves elite interests in terms of selection and distribution of topics, framing of issues, disparity in emphasizing, and the filtering of information. We can’t forget that the beginning of Television in India was literally in the name of development. When television was introduced in the country in 1959, it started as an experiment in social communication for which small teleclubs were organized in Delhi and provided with community television sets. Educational television began in 1961 to support middle and higher secondary school education.[iii] In this context, the Public service broadcasting must aim at enhancing new social environment, reaching out people enriching their lives and seeking communication that provides the warmth of human contact. Public service broadcasting is aiming at the improvement of respect for social, political, cultural and traditional values (Pati: 2004). A strong PSB can play an important role in today’s competitive and complex broadcasting market. In a world of many channels, it is found that a PSB is at its most effective when it only broadcasts a distinctive schedule, but also exerts a pressure on its commercial competitors to do the same. While government regulation of commercial braodcasters can achieve some of these aims, the PSB model is the preferable approach, it combines creative and market pressures on broadcasters to achieve society’s aims for its broadcasting market. (Sahay: 2006) Health Communication – Policy Frameworks in India The National Health Policy (NHP) 1983 re-emphasized Informing, Educating and Communicating (IEC) as the core communication strategy. NHP 2002 reiterated the importance of IEC. The document commented, ‘A substantial component of primary health care consists of initiatives for disseminating to the citizenry, public health- related information’. The National Population Policy (NPP) 2000 urged to utilize radio and television as the most powerful media for disseminating relevant socio-demographic messages. The document says ‘Government could explore the feasibility of appropriate regulations, and even legislation, if necessary, to mandate the broadcast of social messages during prime time’. Campaigns for Family Planning In the case of Health communication, the threat of the ever bulging population was the first issue that was addressed by the media experts. In fact, India was the first country in the world to announce an official Family Planning Programme. During the inter plan period of 1966-1969, Family Planning department carved out a unit in the form of Mass Education and Media Unit in 1966. Simultaneously, the media units of Information and Broadcasting Ministry were strengthened for Family Planning communication. The scheme started with the concept of a small family and the raging slogan was, Hum do Hamare do (‘we two and our two’) and vigorously telecasted through DD and AIR.[iv] Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) SITE is a social development initiative in India and one of the most extensive educational and social research project ever conducted in mass mediated communication. The effectiveness of TV as a medium for educating the masses in rural areas was emphasized by this experiment. With the help of NASA, UNDP, ITU and UNESCO, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) launched SITE on August 01, 1975. Development oriented programs like agricultural modernization through hybrid seeds, better farming methods and management, family planning, public health, social and educational improvement of women and children, better learning and teaching methods were transmitted through the satellite to community TV sets in 2,400 villages in 20 districts spread across the six Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan. The experiment ended on July 31, 1976. Doordarshan – Development Communication Division (DCD) Definitely Doordarshan can be the vital player in the Health Communication arena of our nation as its present coverage is 79.1 per cent of the geographical area and 91.4 per cent population of the country. Further in the bouquet of Doordarshan DTH service (DD Direct Plus) there are 36 TV channels and 20 Radio channels and it is a free to air service.[v] Doordarshan set up in 2001 a Development Communication Division (DCD) to discharge its social responsibility of highlighting development-oriented issues and to cater to the communication needs of government departments and public sector undertakings. Until 2001, small amounts received from government departments were used to commission private producers on behalf of the clients. Development Communication Division revived in-house production of all such campaigns using available manpower and resources. Health Communication: The Indian Stories With the emergence of colour Television, communication experts, media professionals and practitioners started exploring this attractive medium inspired by the Mexican experiment and broadcasted the teleserial Hum log (‘we people’) from 1985-85 addressing issues like gender inequality, health, alcoholism and family planning. [vi] In India, two examples of successful health communication that had considerable impact are Polio and HIV. In either case, a host of agencies worked together to develop a multi-pronged strategy led by communication professionals. This helped in creating multiple strategies that were used to engage diverse audiences. Polio messaging for example was built on simple idea — two drops that could save your child’s life. This message was everywhere — from print, TV and radio. In polio eradication, India has implemented proven strategies and developed innovative approaches to reach and immunize children in hard-to-reach areas. Communication strategies have contributed to such progress on several levels by: mobilizing social networks and leaders, creating political will, increasing knowledge and changing attitudes, ensuring individual and community-level demand, overcoming gender barriers and resistance to vaccination, and, above all, reaching out to the poorest and the most marginalized[vii]. HIV was perhaps India’s most complex disease communication exercise. The HIV program managers within the government understood the importance of prevention and sought help from external agencies creating what was perhaps the most elaborate and effective health communication campaign in recent history. An important aspect of this campaign was it consciously focused on being entertaining and connecting with the audience[viii]. The multimedia campaigns by relaying on TV and Radio and the coverage of such issues by PSB make the health communication prospects further brighter. Kalyani Since May 30, 2002, the Kalyani series has focused on malaria, tuberculosis, iodine deficiency, blindness, leprosy, cancer, HIV/AIDS, reproductive and child health issues, tobacco related and water borne diseases and food safety and telecasted on Thursdays and Mondays at 6:30 p.m. to 7:00 p.m. and repeated on Fridays and Tuesdays. Kalyani targets almost half the population of India, in the nine most populous States with the poorest health indicators. Kalyani is telecast by the nine capital Doordarshan Kendras Bhopal, Bhubaneshwar, Dehradun, Guwahati, Jaipur, Lucknow, Patna, Raipur, Ranchi and 12 sub regional kendras[ix]. The programme is produced in partnership with the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Family Welfare and the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO). As a result of the programme, Kalyani Clubs have sprung up in various parts of the country to spread the message of good health. The concept of Kalyani clubs with membership of local people of the village who watch the programme avidly and strategize on how to implement the health messages was a crucial part of the communications strategy. At present, there are more than 3063 Kalyani Clubs across the country with more than 78965 members till August 2010. Club members organise dance programmes and plays on various health issues. The performances provide information to patients, providers and the community in an entertaining way. These performances are telecast on Doordarshan as a part of the Kalyani episode, spreading awareness amongst a larger audience.[x] This programme has made a significant impact on the target audience as is evident from the reported attitudinal change and social activism. Children, and women, who are among the members of â€Å"Doordarshan Kalyani Clubs†, are taking the television messages further through inter-personal communication and social activism. The Kalyani campaign bagged the prestigious â€Å"Gates Malaria Award† of the Commonwealth Broadcasting Association in 2004 and is also the only media programme to be in WHOs top 15 innovations list.[xi] Swasth Bharat This publicity campaign of Ministry of Health Family Welfare continues to be on the top of the chart with an investment of Rs. 190 crores and is telecast from 30 Kendras in 20 languages and 3 dialects. It is telecast with the title â€Å"Swasth Bharat/Healthy India/Arogya Bharatam†. Nirmal Bharat The campaign is the initiative of Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Govt. of India which is telecast on DD National with an investment of Rs. 45 crores in the financial year 2012-13.[xii] All India Radio Having higher reach in terms of population and the geographical area, All India Radio had been the forerunner in the process of implementing Health Communication strategy being adopted by the government. AIR one of the as the largest radio network in the world is the only mass medium which is accessible to both rural and urban audiences in plenty. Radio also provides series of special audiences programmes on variety of subjects including health management even in the age of television revolution. At the same time, the time, duration, coverage and quality of health education programmes are not appreciated by the people in large number. The Critique of Health Communication Initiatives in India Health Communication from the functional perspective explores four key factors an analysis of the health related issues, devising strategies to communicate them with the people, implementation and evaluation. A critical appraisal of this approach reveals that, there are some losses due to the process of group decision making and implementation.But many of the health related media campaigns in India lack the cohesion of all these components.[xiii] There are also certain accidental slips occurred in the health communication scenario in India – First, the communicators could rarely view engaging the most vulnerable creatively and contextually on health issues as a priority and secondly the overly medicalized approaches to health care. These healthcare communication activities are supervised not by communication professionals but by doctors who understand and know less of health communication. Moreover, health messaging is viewed as a soft aspect of public health programming. ‘Real’ doctors are reluctant to do health communications. A Critical analysis of Comprehensive communication strategy for RNTCP suggest that the main television channels does not reach the poorest and expensive to produce and most disadvantaged groups though they reach to communities on a large scale. The local television channels reach to communities through their dialects but it is limited. The government controlled media has been more or less toeing a centralized form of communication. AIR (All India Radio) during its initial days formulated its communication policies in Delhi and got it translated to the various languages for dissemination. The irony was that it never even looked at the regional variations of the problems. To cite an example, every year, the government observes the first week of August as â€Å"Breast Feeding week† to emphasise on the importance of Breast Feeding for the new born as well as the lactating mother. The government media goes overboard with the campaign. Whereas, in India the people of the Northeastern part needs no campaign as all mothers breast feed their babies instinctively. Hence spending so much of valuable transmission time on such campaigns for these areas could never elicit any result[xiv]. Conclusion Coming to the rural population of India, a widely prevalent but deeply flawed belief is that the poor and the vulnerable population do not care about their health and well-being. The prime objective of health communication is to expose this myth. In fact the vulnerable populations absorb health information well, if it is relevant, localized, integrates well with current cultural and social situations and is entertaining. End Notes 1 [i] Article 25, Universal Declaration of Human Rights – 1948, The United Nations [ii] Health Communication: (Knowledge to Action – Public Health Foundation of India, 2011-12 [iii] Rommani Sen Shitak, TELEVISION AND DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATIONIN INDIA: A CRITICAL APPRAISAL, Commentary Global Media Journal – Indian Edition/ISSN 2249-5835 Winter Issue / December 2011Vol. 2/No.2. [iv] Suresh K., Evidence based communication for health promotion, Indian Journal of Public Health. Oct-Dec, 2011 [v] [vi] Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2009 [vii] Rafael Obregà ³n, Ketan Chitnis, Chris Morry, Warren Feek, Jeffrey Bates, Michael Galway Ellyn Ogden, Achieving polio eradication: A review of health communication evidence and lessons learned in India and Pakistan, [viii] Chapal Mehra, Why Health Communication is Important, The Hindu, 3 January 2013 [ix] Kalyani News Letter, Vol.IV, July 2006 [x] A Health Communication Strategy for RNTCP, Central TB Division, Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India DANTB, 2008 [xi] [xii] [xiii] [xiv] Dr B P Mahesh Chandra Guru, Sapna M SMadhura VeenaM L, Health Education In India. References Gupta, V.S.,Communication Development and Civil Society, New Delhi: Concept Publishing Co., 2004. Ouchi Minoru, Campbell, M.J. (ed.) Development Communication and Grassroots Participatio, Kuala Lumpur: ADIPA, 1985. Piotrow Phyllis Tilson and others, Health Communication Lessons From Family Planning and Reproductive Health, London: Praeger,1997 Raghavan G.N.S., Development Communication in India: A study of reach and relevance in relation to the rural poor, New Delhi: Centre For Area Development Action Research Studies,1989

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Artificial Reproductive Technologies Essay examples -- Infertility Pre

Artificial Reproductive Technologies Introduction Today about 15% of all couples in the United States have fertility problems. 40% of the problems attributed with the man and 50% with the woman and the other 10% is unexplained or due to both partners. Couples today are waiting longer to start families than their parents, this has an effect on fertility of the couple. A woman has a harder time trying to after the age of 30. So, when a couple decides that they want to start a family and can not, what options do they have? Due to the advancements in technology over the past 20 years, these couples now have options with Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART). Although these options are available, the question still remains; Are they ethical? What Causes Infertility? When a couple is infertile, the problem can exist with the man, woman or with both. In natural reproduction it has been estimated that even when sperm does reach the egg, only 84/100 are fertilized, 69/100 implant, 42/100 survive the first week of pregnancy and 31/100 survive to birth. So even in fertile couples, the odds are not totally on their side. Infertility can be caused by sources other than purely medical reasons like the standard of living, stress, and pollutants in the environment. Starting a family later in life also increases the chance of a couple being infertile. There are two main causes of female infertility: tubal disease and endometriosis. Tubal disease is a disorder in which the fallopian tubes are blocked or damaged. Fallopian tubes are thin tubes leading from each of a woman's two ovaries to her uterus, through which eggs travel and in which they are fertilized. Scar tissue, infections or tubal litigation usually causes this ... ...y for infertile couples. I believe that embryos have a right to life. I think that society is fortunate to have people that want to be surrogate mothers. I am sad for the orphans because they seem to get the short end of the stick in this deal. As more couples find ways to have their own children, less couples are looking into adoption. Bibliograhy Alpern, Kenneth D. 1992. "The Ethics of Reproductive Technology" Oxford University Press: New York Caplan, Arthur L. 1995. "Human Reproduction Emerging Technologies, and Conflicting Rights" Library of Congress: Washington Cunnimgham, Paige C. 2000. "The reproductive Revolution" William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company: Cambridge Gosden, Roger. 1999. "Desiging Babies" W.H. Freeman and Company: New York Hildt, Elisabeth. 1998. "In Vitro Fertilisation in the 1990's" Ashgate Publishing Company:Great Britian Artificial Reproductive Technologies Essay examples -- Infertility Pre Artificial Reproductive Technologies Introduction Today about 15% of all couples in the United States have fertility problems. 40% of the problems attributed with the man and 50% with the woman and the other 10% is unexplained or due to both partners. Couples today are waiting longer to start families than their parents, this has an effect on fertility of the couple. A woman has a harder time trying to after the age of 30. So, when a couple decides that they want to start a family and can not, what options do they have? Due to the advancements in technology over the past 20 years, these couples now have options with Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART). Although these options are available, the question still remains; Are they ethical? What Causes Infertility? When a couple is infertile, the problem can exist with the man, woman or with both. In natural reproduction it has been estimated that even when sperm does reach the egg, only 84/100 are fertilized, 69/100 implant, 42/100 survive the first week of pregnancy and 31/100 survive to birth. So even in fertile couples, the odds are not totally on their side. Infertility can be caused by sources other than purely medical reasons like the standard of living, stress, and pollutants in the environment. Starting a family later in life also increases the chance of a couple being infertile. There are two main causes of female infertility: tubal disease and endometriosis. Tubal disease is a disorder in which the fallopian tubes are blocked or damaged. Fallopian tubes are thin tubes leading from each of a woman's two ovaries to her uterus, through which eggs travel and in which they are fertilized. Scar tissue, infections or tubal litigation usually causes this ... ...y for infertile couples. I believe that embryos have a right to life. I think that society is fortunate to have people that want to be surrogate mothers. I am sad for the orphans because they seem to get the short end of the stick in this deal. As more couples find ways to have their own children, less couples are looking into adoption. Bibliograhy Alpern, Kenneth D. 1992. "The Ethics of Reproductive Technology" Oxford University Press: New York Caplan, Arthur L. 1995. "Human Reproduction Emerging Technologies, and Conflicting Rights" Library of Congress: Washington Cunnimgham, Paige C. 2000. "The reproductive Revolution" William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company: Cambridge Gosden, Roger. 1999. "Desiging Babies" W.H. Freeman and Company: New York Hildt, Elisabeth. 1998. "In Vitro Fertilisation in the 1990's" Ashgate Publishing Company:Great Britian

Friday, October 11, 2019

Living Abroad Essay

Living abroad provides many opportunities and challenges. When I study abroad, I look forward to making friends. By getting to know people, I will be able to improve my English language proficiency. There are idioms and words that are best learned within the context of real conversations with native speakers. I also look forward to being a participant in a new culture. At the end of my stay, I hope that I will understand the culture in a different and deeper way than is possible when information is derived from only movies and books. In addition, I am excited about studying on a foreign campus. I expect the college courses to be challenging, and I am eager to learn about the latest technological advances in my field of study. I am realistic about the disadvantages of foreign study, however. I know that I will miss my family very much. It will be too expensive to return to my country to spend holidays with them, and I will be very lonely during the times when I know that they are gathered for special celebrations. Another aspect of the experience that I do not look forward to is the reliance on fast food that is so typical of college students. Pizza, hamburgers, and other junk foods are easier to find and prepare than the meals that I enjoy in my country, but they aren’t as good, and they probably aren’t as healthy. Finally, I imagine that my life will be very stressful because I will be competing with students who know the language of the classroom and are accustomed to the expectations that the professors have for their students. I am a competitive person by nature, and I am apprehensive about my ability to compete with my classmates. Once I am living abroad, I will no doubt find many other opportunities to take advantage of and many challenges that I must confront. Nevertheless, I expect my experience to be overwhelmingly positive, and I intend to see the lessons in both adventures and adversity.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Use the Slept Framework to Analyse the Current External Business

A. Written Report (25%) You are required to analyse the business environment of a UK based manufacturer of a luxury product of your choice. Please note that: * The actual company is hypothetical. * It is assumed to supply to the upmarket department stores and boutiques around the world but its main market is the UK. * You must agree your specific product with your tutor. * By luxury product, we mean an expensive product that is not a basic necessity. To complete this assessment task, you must: a. Use the SLEPT framework to analyse the current external business environment for issues that may affect your company.Attach this in the Appendix. No word limit for this section. b. Drawing on your analysis of the external business environment, explain and justify the three most important issues currently facing your company. Word limit is 2000 words for this section. Word Limit The word limit is 2000 words (excluding any items in the appendix**). Students are advised to stick to the word lim it – if you exceed the word limit, it should be within the 10% rule. Work submitted that exceeds the word limit may be penalised on the basis of failure to demonstrate academic discipline. *The Appendix should only be used to support your discussion (which is what is being marked) with reference materials e. g. diagrams, scanned images, Internet printouts, articles etc. It should not be used to supplement your essay so that more words can be squeezed into your assignment! In other words, a poorly written essay with a fantastic appendix is not going to achieve a good grade. Referencing To get a good grade, your discussion must be underpinned by a wide selection of secondary sources and academic materials (e. g. books and journal articles) throughout your work or where appropriate.All work must be fully referenced (preferably using the Harvard Referencing System) to acknowledge sources used or consulted for the production of your report otherwise it would be considered as plagi arism. Correct referencing is a vital skill you will need to master for any academic writing. Please DO NOT USE references taken from Wikipedia, MarketingTeacher. Com, QuickMBA. Com or similar websites that allow students to do a quick ‘copy and paste’ quotations of academic concepts. These websites may be useful for initial research and/or reading but they should not end up in any part of your work as they are not legitimate academic sources.This kind of practice does not encourage deep learning. Deep learning can only come about if you invest time and effort into in-depth reading in original sources. A) Use the SLEPT framework to analyse the current external business environment for issues that may affect your company. Attach this in the Appendix. No word limit for this section. I will be using SLEPT in order to analyze the external business environment for key issues that may affect my hi-fi firm. ‘Rich Sounds' is a luxury selling Hi-fi Company based in the Uni ted Kingdom. The company does compete internationally, however its main trade mainly takes place within the UK.The market is estimated to be worth ? 2 billion in 2007 compared with a peak value of ? 2. 1 billion in 2005. The growth of the market for portable music players and, more recently, for home docking stations has offset a decline in home hi-fi system sales. The arrival of the iPod marked a sea change in the audio equipment market. Sales of MP3 players have grown dramatically at the expense of other portable music players, especially CD players. In the home, CDs remain the dominant format but are increasingly played on PCs and laptops – this change has adversely impacted the sale of conventional home audio equipment (Mintel. Rich Sounds does compete at the higher end of the hi-fi market with brands such as ‘Sony’ and ‘Panasonic’. SLEPT framework is used to analyze the current external business environment for issues affecting a business such a s Rich Sounds. The luxury hi-fi market has many external influences which can affect it. Technology is one of the main external influences from the SLEPT analysis. Development in technology has meant that smaller and sleeker devices such as iPods are selling instead of traditional hi-fi systems. Advances in technology, for example advertising has hugely helped the growing sales in the hi-fi market.Many electronics companies tend to have huge celebrity endorsements which in return boost their sales as people nowadays tend to favour electronics which are advertised by celebrities and follow the trend. It is said that companies such as Rich Sounds need to spend at least ? 1million on advertising in order to compete at the top level. (Mintel) Also more and more people tend to download their music nowadays and this means an increase in competition for Rich Sounds as more people would buy computers and laptops rather than hi-fis.Ownership of PCs has now reached high levels and the majorit y of consumers are accessing the Internet at least once a week at home. Another issue in SLEPT is economic factors. The current ‘credit crunch' has resulted in more and more people having less disposable income and this knock on effect means electronic sales could suffer. It is thought that due to this, people are less likely to buy hi-fi's, but instead buy necessities. The credit crunch has also reduced the amount of affluent people and this means it could reduce the market size and this means Rich Sounds could become more competitive.It could be said that spending on repairs has fallen dramatically over the last five years, as lower product prices mean it is often more cost-efficient to replace than repair. The final issue linked to economic factors is society. Hi-fi's are associated as being a seasonal product especially at Christmas time when people are buying them for presents so this is when Rich sounds would expect a huge increase in sales. Also people that work long ho urs and work further away from home can help boost Rich Sounds sales. Nowadays, commuting to work is tedious to a lot of people and so they can listen to audio equipment at this point.The final issue in SLEPT is political issues. Although there is not much to say for this point, I can briefly say that tax issues affect my firm. B) Drawing on your analysis of the external business environment, explain and justify the three most important issues currently facing your company. Word limit is 2000 words for this section. I will now discuss the three most important issues from the SLEPT analysis and these are the technological, social and economical issues. Trends are an important aspect of the economic environment.Nowadays it is becoming increasingly more fashionable to follow celebrity trends and those celebrities who advertise electronics such as hi-fis tend to sell the most. An example of this is when Sony used Justin Timberlake dancing on their adverts to help promote their goods and this saw a huge increase in sales. Research suggests that the two most popular hi-fi companies are Panasonic and Sony and these spend millions and millions on advertising. This means Rich Sounds could advertise new equipment with different celebrities to help promote it hugely. Another economic factor is the ‘credit crunch'.It has resulted in people having a lot less disposable income and so therefore hi-fi sales will fall dramatically. Due to this people will not splash out on luxury goods like hi-fis, however they will buy necessities instead. This provides a knock on effect and therefore Rich Sounds sales may fall. Also the credit crunch has seen a reduction in the amount of wealthy people and this can reduce the size of the market and therefore make Rich Sounds more competitive. http://academic. mintel. com. lcproxy. shu. ac. uk/sinatra/oxygen_academic/search_results/show&/display/id=271602/display/id=299002#hit1

Natural Fiber Wide Use Health And Social Care Essay

Natural fibres have been in a broad usage since the development of the human race. Catching up the Eco thrust, applied scientists were looking for eco-friendly options for fictile fibre. In the due class many natural fibres have been tested and some were able to do their base going economically feasible. The present work proposes to fix and prove a Natural Fiber ( Asian Palmyra ) Reinforced Composite ( NFRC ) . The survey is planned in conformity to a 3-Level Factorial Design and find the fluctuation of Tensile Strength ( TS ) , of short and indiscriminately oriented Palmyra NFRC, under control parametric quantities such as alkali intervention clip, fiber length and fiber volume % . The present paper focuses to pattern the influence of procedure variables on TS through Response Surface Methodology. The mathematical theoretical account which is developed to foretell tensile strength is found statistically valid and sound within the scope of the factors. Keywords: A – Discontinuous support, B – Mechanical belongingss, C – Statistical properties/methods, D – Mechanical testing, E – Lay-up ( manual ) .1. Introduction:Natural fibre has been in a broad usage since the development of the human race. They had got broad acceptation in communities for their flexibleness and strength. Recent tendencies in the country of fibre reinforced complexs have drawn a twine in utilizing these natural fibres as their support. The natural fibre imparts lower lastingness and lower strength compared to glaze fibres. However, low specific gravitation consequences in a higher specific strength and stiffness than glass. Natural fibres offer good thermal, dielectric and acoustic insularity belongingss along with easiness in processing technique without have oning of tools. Most of these fibres are produced in developing states like China, India and Brazil etc. In a historical position complexs like straw reinforced walls, bows and chariots made of pasted beds played of import functions in their endurance. Though many of these fibres are limited to their epidemic parts due to high local demand for many old ages, coming of man-made fibres have affected the market of natural fibres. After being entirely used for their electromagnetic belongingss, utilizing complexs to better the structural public presentation of ballistic capsule and aircraft became popular in last two decennaries of the old century. Particularly, increased constrains and future environmental route maps, have been emphasizing automotive industries to diminish their C pes prints. These rigorous steps have become blessing to the lagging natural fibre industries, and thereby making new challenges for research workers in happening beginnings of fibre, fiction techniques and applications of na tural fibres. The easy handiness of natural fibres and fabricating have motivated research workers worldwide late to seek locally available cheap fibres and to analyze their feasibleness of support intents and to what extent they satisfy the needed specifications of good reinforced polymer complexs [ 1 ] . Many surveies proved them to be possible rivals to man-made fibre to some extent. After reexamining the bing literature available on natural fibre complexs, assorted writers had put attempts in planing complexs based on the demands of composite industry. There has been a broad assortment of literature available on natural fibres such aspen, abaca, bagasse, bamboo, banana, coir, day of the month thenar, flax, henequen, isora, jute, silk cotton, deccan hemp, oil thenar, Ananas comosus, ramee, sisal, etc. , [ 2-18 ] . Natural fibre complexs provide comparable specific strength with that of man-made fibre complexs, due the low denseness offered by natural fibres [ 19 ] . There are many parametric quantities which affect the public presentation of a natural fiber-reinforced complex. Chemical alteration improvesA fiberA matrix adhesion, their consequences and effects on the physical belongingss ofA complexs [ 20 ] . Aspect ratio has a considerable consequence on composite belongingss, henc e it is of import to conserve fiber length every bit much as possible during composite processing operations [ 21 ] . Mechanical belongingss of the composite vary with assorted sums of fibre volume ratio. But there have been a really few documents covering with Palmyra fibre, the present fibre of our involvement [ 22 – 24 ] . The Borasseus Flabellifer is a tall and vertical thenar, and can populate 100 old ages or more and make a tallness of 30 m, with a canopy of big, fan-shaped foliages several twelve found distributing 3 metres across [ 25 ] . Each and every portion of the tree is a noteworthy socio-economic value for people in Southern India. The mid-ribs of the foliages and the fibres from their chaffs are used in doing industrial coppices and brooms. The fibre has good opposition to clash and heat, and will defy many chemicals and dissolvers. The denseness of toddy palm ( 0.7 gm/cm3 ) is least among all known natural fibres that are being commercially used in fabricating natural fibre complexs. This is extremely favourable belongings from the position point of light-weightiness. The present complex can happen extended application in non-structural, low-performance utilizations. Hence, the toddy palm fibres are most suited for doing support in green composite stuffs. The present research focuses on the survey and consequence of procedure parametric quantities on the tensile strength of short and indiscriminately oriented palmyra natural fibre reinforced complexs. The decisions drawn from this is that, a successful combination of procedure parametric quantities consequences in the betterment of mechanical belongingss of the composite. In future, complexs will be manufactured even more harmonizing to an integrated design procedure ensuing in the optimal building harmonizing to parametric quantities such as form, mass, strength, stiffness, lastingness, costs, etc. The developed mathematical theoretical account will be able to demo the influence of a design alteration on each one of these parametric quantities ( here strength ) .2. RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY:Response surface methodological analysis ( RSM ) began with the work of Box and Wilson in the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society [ 26 ] . That work was motivated by the demand to run expe riments expeditiously, by a proper pick of design, and to find operating conditions on a set of governable variables that give rise to an optimum response. The cardinal thoughts in the classical RSM are developed utilizing additive multinomial theoretical accounts, chiefly first-degree and second-degree theoretical accounts, with uninterrupted response variables assumed, for the most portion, to be independently and usually distributed with changeless mistake discrepancies. This method has gone through several phases of development that are aimed at doing it more applicable to wider experimental state of affairss [ 27 ] . RSM is a aggregation of mathematical and statistical techniques that are utile for the mold and analysis of jobs in which a response of involvement is influenced by several variables and the aim is to optimise the response [ 28 ] . For, illustration, if the experimenter wishes to happen the degrees of two input variables, x1, x2 which maximize the output [ y ] of the procedure, so the procedure output is stated as: where I µ represents the noise or mistake observed in the response Y. If the expected response is denoted by E [ y ] = f [ x1, x2 ] = I · , so the surface represented by I · = f [ x1, x2 ] is called a response surface. If the individual input variable can be related to the end product variable so it is known as response curve and if the two input variables relate to the end product variable so it is known as response surface [ 28 ] . In common pattern, response surfaces are expressed diagrammatically and visualized through single secret plans, contours and 3D surface graphs.3. SPECIMEN Fabrication:The petioles of Asiatic Palmyra tree were soaked in a H2O retting armored combat vehicle for 45 yearss. After 45 yearss, the fibre can be extracted from the chaffs manually. These long uninterrupted fibres are washed exhaustively in plentifulness of clean H2O to take the excess waste ( fig. 1 ) .3.1 ALKALI TREATMENT:The obtained fibres were divided into three parts of equal weight. Th ese three groups of fibre were treated with 5 % NaOH solution for different clip continuances. The first group is treated for 2 hours, the 2nd for 4 hours and the 3rd for 6 hours. Chemical intervention with NaOH removes wet content from the fibres thereby increasing its strength. The chemical intervention besides clears all the drosss that are bordering the fiber stuff and besides stabilizes the molecular orientation. After alkali intervention, fibres were washed exhaustively in the distilled H2O and were dried for one twenty-four hours at room temperature. Then these long fibres were cut into short fibres of different lengths ( 3mm, 5mm and 7mm ) . The fibres which were treated for 2 hours with NaOH are cut into equal sums of 3mm, 5mm and 7mm fibres severally. Similarly, the fibres which were treated with NaOH for 4 hours and 6 hours were besides cut into short fibres. Therefore nine different samples of fibre were prepared which vary in fibre length and alkali intervention hours.3.2 PREPATION OF COMPOSITES:A rectangular wooden board of 300mm, 300mm was taken and wooden forms of thickness 4mm were fixed on these wooden boards with the aid of nails. These wooden forms were placed so that a infinite of 150mm, 10mm, and 4mm was obtained. After the molds of needed dimensions were prepared, wax was applied to the interior sides of the molds for easy release of the complex without lodging to the mold walls. Then the matrix was prepared by blending the hardener to epoxy. The epoxy and the hardener ratio were maintained at 10:1. To acquire goo d cured and a standard quality specimen, the epoxy and hardener must be assorted swimmingly and easy for about 10 proceedingss. Initial bed of the mold was filled with the epoxy rosin and hardener mixture and so the appropriate measure of fibres was placed such that epoxy mixture wholly spread over the fibres. Again, epoxy mixture was poured on the fibre. Therefore, the starting and stoping of the beds were of epoxy rosin. A fictile releasing house was placed on the top of the uncured mixture. Before using compaction, attempts were made to take all bubbles with roller. Finally, the compaction force per unit area of 0.05 MPa was applied equally and cured for 24 hours at room temperature. In this manner, specimens incorporating different volume fractions of fibre were prepared. These specimens were cured in the hot air oven at 600 C for 2 hours. Specimens incorporating different fibre volume fractions such as 20 % , 30 % , 40 % were prepared and 27 specimens were prepared. Natural Fib er Reinforced Composite ( NFRC ) is considered as the stuff for probe and its material composing is given in Table 4.1. The specimen ( Fig. 2 ) is prepared with the dimensions of 150mm length, 10mm breadth and 4mm thickness harmonizing to ASTM D 3039-76 [ 29 ] is used for experimentation.3.3 MECHANICAL Testing OF FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITE:The most basic mechanical trial is the tenseness trial. For most structural stuffs, the tensile belongingss are indispensable elements of the stuff design allowable. The complexs specimens were tested as per ASTM criterions. The tensile testing was done as per ASTM D 3039M with the aid of INSTRON-6025 theoretical account Universal Testing Machine ( Fig. 3 ) at a crosshead velocity of 2mm per minute and consequences were analyzed to cipher the tensile strength of composite samples.4. Plan AN Experiment:Recognition of job and job statement:â€Å" Determine the affect of Alkali Treatment Time, Fiber length & A ; % Fiber volume on the tensile strengt h of Natural Fiber ( short Asian Palmyra ) Reinforced Composite. †Choice of factors, degrees, scopes:Alkali Treatment Time ( A ) , Fiber length ( B ) , Fiber volume % ( C ) ( 3 Levels )Choice of the response variable:Tensile Strength of Natural Fiber Reinforced Composite ( T ) .Choice of experimental design:3 flat factorial design.Performing the experiment:Tensile strength on Universal Testing Machine ( UTM ) .Statistical analysis of informations:A, B, C relation to TDecisions and recommendations:Accomplishment of experiment aims.4.1 DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED METHODOLOGYThe control factors considered for experiments are alkali intervention clip, fiber length and fibre volume per centum while tensile strength is considered as the end product response. The process of response surface methodological analysis comprises the undermentioned stairss [ 30 ] : Plan a series of experiments for equal and dependable measuring of the response of involvement. Develop an empirical or mathematical theoretical account of the 2nd order response surface with the best adjustments. Find the optimum set of experimental parametric quantities that produce a upper limit or minimal value of response. Represent the direct and the synergistic effects of procedure parametric quantities through two and three dimensional secret plans.4.1.1 Conducting the experimentsThe executable scopes of the procedure control variables considered are listed in Table 4.2. These values correspond to the conditions at which there is maximal consequence on tensile strength as reported by other writers for different natural fibres. The belongingss of Asiatic Palmyra fibre reinforced complexs with different fibre lengths, clip continuances of Alkali intervention and fibre volume per centums under these conditions, the probes are presented in the undermentioned Tables 4.3, 4.4 and 4.5. Sample of tensile trial studies are shown in Fig. 4. The tensile strength of the specimen made of epoxy and hardener is 12.44MPa.4.2 DEVELOPMENT OF EMPIRICAL MODELSThe informations collected from typical experiments refering to end product responses, Tensile Strength from Tables 4.3, 4.4 and 4.5 are used to implement the proposed methodological analysis. The demand in developing the mathematical relationships is to associate the tensile strength to the procedure parametric quantities thereby easing the optimisation of the procedure parametric quantities. Design Expert, 8.0v [ 31 ] , statistical analysis package, is used to calculate the arrested development coefficients of the proposed theoretical accounts. The interaction effects of the procedure parametric quantities and tensile strength are important and hence the 2nd order theoretical accounts are postulated. The multinomial is fitted and the relationships obtained for the end product responses are given below:4.2.1 Adequacy trial:The developed empirical theoretical accounts are tested for their adequateness utilizing the undermentioned trials: Analysis of Variance [ ANOVA ] :ANOVA is carried out for the quadratic response surface theoretical accounts. The statistics of ANOVA for Tensile Strength is given in the Table 4.6. In instance of tensile strength, it can be observed from Table 4.6 that the value of â€Å" Probability & gt ; F † for the theoretical account is less than 0.05, which indicates that the theoretical account is important [ 28 ] . Multiple arrested development coefficients:To look into whether the fitted theoretical accounts really describe the experimental information, the multiple arrested dev elopment coefficient [ R2 ] is computed. R2 statistic is defined as the ratio of variableness explained by the theoretical account to the entire variableness in the existent experimental informations and is used as a step of goodness of fit [ 28 ] . If R2 attacks to integrity, the better the theoretical account fits the experimental information. In other words, it is the proportion of fluctuation in the dependant variable [ response ] that can be explained by the forecasters [ factor ] in the theoretical account. From Table 4.6, R2 for tensile strength is found to be 0.9276. This shows that the second-order theoretical account can explicate the fluctuation in tensile strength up to the extent of 92.76 % . The adjusted R2 efforts to give a more appropriate value to gauge R2. Adjusted R2 can be computed utilizing the expression 1- [ [ 1- R2 ] * [ N-1 ] / [ N-k-1 ] ] , where N is the figure of observations and K is the figure of forecasters [ 28 ] . When N is little and K is big and there will be a much greater difference between R2 and adjusted R2 [ because the ratio of [ N-1 ] / [ N-k-1 ] will be much less than 1. By contrast, when the figure of observations is really big compared to the figure of forecasters, the value of R2 and adjusted R2 will be much closer because the ratio of [ N-1 ] / [ N-k-1 ] will near 1. From Table 4.6, adjusted R2 for tensile strength is found to be 0.8915. It can be observed that the values of R2 and adjusted R2 are much closer to each other. The developed mathematical theoretical accounts are farther checked for their adequateness utilizing normal chance secret plan of remainders. The diagnostic secret plans are drawn to look into whether the informations are usually distributed and for any premise is violated. Therefore, the normal chance secret plan of remainders for the responses, tensile strength is plotted. Normal chance secret plans are used to measure whether informations come from the normal distribution. The statistical process makes the premise that an implicit in distribution is normal [ 28 ] . Thus normal chance secret plans can supply confidence that the premise is justified, or else supply a warning of jobs with the premise. An analysis of normalcy typically combines normal chance secret plans with hypothesis trials for normalcy. In a normal chance secret plan, if all the information points autumn near the line, an premise of normalcy is sensible. Otherwise, the points will swerve off from the line, and an premise of normalcy is non justified. The normal chance secret plans of the remainders for the end product responses, tensile strength is shown in Fig. 5 and it can be observed that the remainders are located on consecutive line, which means that the mistakes are distributed usually. The 3D surface graphs for tensile strength are shown in Figs. 6 – 8. All have curvilinear profile in conformity to the quadratic theoretical account fitted. Fig. 6 shows the interaction consequence of fibre length and alkali intervention clip on tensile strenth at different degrees of fibre volume per centum. It is clear from the figure that at highest values of fibre length and alkali intervention clip the tensile strenth attains largest value of 27MPa. At high value of alkali intervention clip ( 6Hrs ) and low value of fiber length ( 3mm ) , tensile strength varies from 17-19 MPa. where as at low value of both fiber length and alkali intervention clip the tensile strength is lowest. Fig. 7 depicts the consequence of fibre volume per centum and alkali intervention clip on tensile strength at different degrees of fibre length. As indicated in the secret plan the tensile strength additions with addition in both fiber volume per centum and alkali intervention clip. The highest value of tensile strength of about 27MPa is recorded at high values of fibre volume per centum and alkali intervention clip. Fig. 8 describes the interaction consequence of fibre volume per centum and fiber length on tensile strength of short and indiscriminately oriented Palmyra fiber composite at different degrees of base intervention clip. As the fibre volume per centum additions from 20 – 40 % and fibre length increasing from 7 – 3mm so tensile strength additions from 13 – 27 MPa. The combined consequence of fibre length and fibre volume per centum increases the tensile strength of composite. It can be said that the empirical theoretical accounts developed were moderately accurate, for Tensile strength.5 DecisionThe proposed work is on the survey and consequence of procedure parametric quantities on the tensile strength of short and indiscriminately oriented toddy palm fibre reinforced complexs. The experimental probe on mechanical behavior of palmyra fibre reinforced complexs leads to the undermentioned decisions: Tensile strength ( TS ) , of the toddy palm fibre reinforced compos ite stuff is greatly influenced by alkali intervention clip, fiber length and fibre volume fraction. The quadratic theoretical account developed by RSM can be used to foretell the tensile strength of the toddy palm fibre reinforced composite stuff at 93 % assurance degree. But the cogency of the theoretical account is limited to the scope of parametric quantities considered for the probe. The truth of the developed theoretical account can be improved by including more figure of parametric quantities and degrees. Further, mathematical theoretical accounts can be developed by taking multiple responses, with different scopes of procedure variables and the composite design can be optimized based on the demand of the clients.