Monday, September 30, 2019
Task 1) Summarize briefly why Mr Ramirez came to Los Angeles and why he has to leave. Ã¢â¬Å"ObviouslyÃ¢â¬ enough Mr Ramirez came to Los Angeles in the search for a better job and life. Well job, he had a job during the war at an airplane factory making parts, and he kept this job after the war. The reason he had to leave was because he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t allowed to stay there any longer, because his temporary visa was no longer valid. He was there six months too long as well, so the police came and picked him up, to send him back to Mexico. Task2)A There is a famous saying that is nothing more American than Mom and apple pie.This storyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"momÃ¢â¬ just happens to be baking a pie. She looks at her pie and compares it to Mr Ramirez. What attitude toward Mr Ramirez does this comparison encourage? I think our writer; Ray Bradbury wanted to show that illegal immigrants also are human beings. Ray wanted to show that these illegal immigrants can have a positive influence on ot hers. I even think that Mrs OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien likes Mr Ramirez more than just a friend; I think she likes him even more. The way she said Ã¢â¬Å"I just realized, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll never see Mr Ramirez againÃ¢â¬ made me think that.She says in a very sad way, like if she lost something very valuable to her. In all those American movies, the moms are very happy for their pies, and they let the pieÃ¢â¬â¢s stand in the window frame, and then someone comes and steals it. And now, someone came and took her pie, which is Mr Ramirez. Task 2) B We are given a detailed description of what Mr Ramirez likes about his room, what he spends his money on and what he likes to do in Los Angeles. What do these details reveal to us about why Mexicans like living in the USA? These descriptions start right after Ã¢â¬Å"Soon after Mr Ramirez had arrived.. Ã¢â¬ just like it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t possible for him to do before he came. Pleasures that are harder to achieve in countries like Mexico are more easily attai nable in USA, which is the land where your dreams come true, isnÃ¢â¬â¢t it? USA makes it easier for good, hard-working people to be something, and live more greatly. Ã¢â¬Å"Walked silent streets and seen the bright clothes in the windows and bought some of themÃ¢â¬ Is one of the things he likes to do. He likes to do it, and he does it, the recipe for success. I guess that in Mexico, these things are harder. Task 2) CMrs OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien has been to Mexico. What did she notice? Why do you think all the negative sides of Mexico are in the thoughts of Mrs OÃ¢â¬â¢Brian and not Mr Ramirez? Mrs OÃ¢â¬â¢Brian remembers the hot days, the endless crickets leaping and falling or lying dead and brittle like the small cigars in the shop windows. She remembers the canals taking river water out to the farms, the dirt roads, and the scorched landscape. She remembers the silent towns, the warm beer, and the hot, thick food every day. She remembers the slow, dragging horses and the parched jac k rabbits on the road.She remembers the Iron Mountains and the dusty valleys and the ocean beaches that spread hundreds of miles with no sound but the waves Ã¢â¬â no cars, no buildings. I believe that the reason Mrs OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien think of all the negative sides, and Mr Ramirez doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t is because he is used to them. These conditions, this land she came across during her visit is much more of a shock to her, than to Mr Ramirez. Task 2) D Both Mr Ramirez and Mrs OÃ¢â¬â¢Brian are suddenly overwhelmed by a feeling of loss at his leaving. Why did the writer not just have Mr Ramirez being sad about never seeing Mrs OÃ¢â¬â¢Brian again?I think our writer; Ray Bradbury wanted to show that illegal immigrants are also human beings. Ray wanted to show that these illegal immigrants can have a positive influence on others. As well, I think that the whole story may last in just a couple of minutes, so the author focuses more on detailed description of the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s story and experience to give us readers a bigger picture, if not the text could be meaningless and quite short. Task 3) A Is this a story that tries to create sympathy for illegal Mexican workers? Does it succeed? I think it tries to create sympathy for those who illegally enter the USA.It does show that Mexican workers have bad living standards where they come from, so it does create sympathy in some ways. I think itÃ¢â¬â¢s more that they want a change considering the rules, because those Mexican workers are people too, and they are probably just as good and hard-working as any other American. A story about Mexican workers just trying to live their life to the fullest by doing solid work, and the story confirms this and tries to open up some thoughts surrounding the theme. I think it succeeds; at least I get sympathy for them, so I guess it works. Task 3) B Can literature play a major role in bringing about social change?Is it as effective as documentary films and television programs, or non-fictional books and articles about social problems? Yes, literature can play a great role, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s various. A great, well know text can make a difference if it really makes an impression, but I do not think itÃ¢â¬â¢s the best way these days to make social problems more known. I believe a movie is the best way, because it reaches out to more people, and gets greater publicity than books. For example the new movie Ã¢â¬Å"The ImpossibleÃ¢â¬ about the Tsunami, gives very strong impressions because we can see what happens, and we know it happend in real life.Books donÃ¢â¬â¢t reach out to that many people. Task 6) A * How long is the Mexican-American border in miles and kilometres? The Mexican-American border total length is 1,969 miles or 3,141 km long * The 2006 Secure Fence Act says there is going to be a fence along the border. How long will the fence be in miles, and in kilometres? The 2006 Secure Fence Act goal was/is to help and secure AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s borders to decrease the amount of illegal entries, drug trafficking and security threats. A 700 miles (1,100 km) fence of physical barriers alongside the Mexico-United States border.Kilde: ( http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Secure_Fence_Act_of_2006 ) * Approximately how many illegals get across the border every year? Of course, itÃ¢â¬â¢s impossible to give an exact number, but the number is somewhere around 375,000 people every year. About 65% of these illegal immigrants come from Mexico and the other 35% come from Southern America. At least according to (http://www. strategicstudiesinstitute. army. mil/pdffiles/ksil499. pdf) * Use the internet to find out how you could legally enter the USA. Is there any way you could enter the USA to work and live there permanently?Start your search by going to the United States Embassy websites. If you are going to live permanently in the USA, you are going to have to get a green card. This means you have to become a permanent resident. The first way to qu alify for a green card is by having close family members who lives in the US. The second way of getting green card, is trough employment. Your chances for making this work increase the more skilled you are. In most cases you must show that an employer has offered you a job. The employer must also be able to show that no American was available to do the job.The last option for green card, would be through the diversity lottery. A program encouraging immigration for countries that donÃ¢â¬â¢t send many immigrants to the U. S. A small number of green cards will be available to people from these countries. All the qualified applicants will enter a lottery and the winners get the green card and gets allowed to move to USA. https://www. usimmigrationsupport. org/greencard. html * Use the internet to find reliable information about the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 or, in its full name, the Secure Borders, Economic Opportunity and Immigration Reform Act of 2007.This act wit h a very long name was a proposition that would allow illegal immigrants to be able living and working legally in the U. S, with something called work authorization card, after paying some fines. Also, it would create temporary work programs, so workers would have to return to their homeland every two years, and stay there for a year or so before they could come back. But this act got voted down and died in the Senate after failing to get the 60 votes it needed to end debate. Kilde : http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Comprehensive_Immigration_Reform_Act_of_2007 http://immigration. about. om/od/usimmigrationhistory/f/What-S-In-The-Comprehensive-Immigration-Reform-Bill. htm http://www. nytimes. com/2011/12/09/us/illegal-border-crossings-dip-sharply. html? _r=0 http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Illegal_immigration_to_the_United_States Last raindrops Little Noah wakes up by the sound of rain thundering down on his window. He looks up, but he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t move, he just stares at the window, looking at the rain. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really think of anything special, he just observes how the rain splashes on the railings. Despite his confusion of what he should be thinking, he has a bad feeling. He knows that today is the day.He can feel it. They told him it was going to happen this week, but not sure which day. He stands up and puts his pyjamas pants on, the new one that he bought just some days ago. He stretches out like he always does, making this weird noise because heÃ¢â¬â¢s so sleepy. He stands in front of the window, looking out again. He has always been inspired by the rain; it makes him feel comfortable, but not today. Today it just makes him confused. Why would they want to take him? A 10 year old boy, who has done no harm towards anyone. Even though it was raining, the sun was rising in distance, hopefully making a rainbow.Maybe that would cheer him up. Anyhow, he knows that today is the day to leave this reality. Not just all the things in present time, also t he future in this place will go away for ever. The government has decided to send Noah and his dad back home, where they once lived, Kurdistan. He can hear his dad walking around downstairs. Not looking for something, just walking around. Probably confused, just like Noah. It has been 4 days since they said they would show within a week, but this had to be the day. Despite NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s young age, he was quite aware of what was going on.NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s dad has told him that the war in his native land isnÃ¢â¬â¢t critical anymore, even safe according to authorities, but Noah knows better. Noah remembers things from when he had to leave the country, he gets flashbacks. He remembers people screaming, and he just stood there crying. He remembers the last time he ever saw his mother and sister, before they were killed by a car-bomb. Noah was only 4 years old at the time, but the memories are stuck in him. He tries to stay positive, but heÃ¢â¬â¢s afraid. Afraid of leaving this safe place . Afraid of the memories that are printed in his head.Afraid that he and his dad will share the same faith as his sister and mother, losing everything again. Maybe he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have any place to sleep, anything to eat. He is glad he got his dad, but he misses his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s comforting words. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t recall much of her, but enough to know that he misses her. Noah fells a tear down his cheek, just like the ones falling down on his window. NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s father didnÃ¢â¬â¢t take the loss of his wife well either, he struggled a lot. Noah remembers how he heard his father crying late nights, and he remembers when they got the letter which said they had to go back.Noah looks out the window again, he sees people running around, hiding from the rain under their jackets. He remembers one time, long ago, when his mother, father and himself had to run across town because the rain surprisingly showed up. But Noah didnÃ¢â¬â¢t mind, he loved the rain. He hopes it will rain a l ot where he is going, itÃ¢â¬â¢s his only hope at the moment. Doorbell. Doorbell again. Every sound makes NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s heart beat a little faster. He looks outside again, observing the rain, sliding down synchronized with his tears. They were here, itÃ¢â¬â¢s time.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
In January 2003, Eduardo Gamarra and his research team set out to lend their professional and academic expertise in mitigating the probable causes of Bolivian conflicts through the Conflict Vulnerability Assessment or CVA of Bolivia (Gamarra, 2003, p. 1). Assessing the possible causes of conflicts in Bolivia will stop the ongoing threats to countrywide instability.The Bolivian instability may have started and peeked during the 2002 elections where parties started to clamor for position by entering into party coalitions; due to this, the majority vote that should have been echoed as the Bolivian democracy has been counterproductive to insure the satisfaction of party coalition based interests (Gamarra, 2003, p. 4). Through the CVA, Gamarra deems that it is possible to predict possible events that could turn into violent confrontations by taking into account the premises set by the present Bolivian political landscape.In relation to the main objectives of this research paper, Eduardo G amarraÃ¢â¬â¢s preemptive and predictive research to address future Bolivian conflicts will be assessed through the methodology that Gamarra employed in his research. As of this point, GamarraÃ¢â¬â¢s CVA appears to employ predictive methodologies in its attempts to prevent the occurrence of violent confrontations in Bolivia. Furthermore, CVA appears to follow conventions of predictive research such as those prescribed in LAMP. As the center of this research paper, Lockwood Analytical Method of Prediction (LAMP) is one of the widely used predictive research methodologies (LAMP, 2010, p.n. pag. ). This methodology offers a new methodological approach from the conventional quantity based projections in predictive researches (LAMP, 2010, p. n. pag. ). LAMP can be assumed as the methodology used by Gamarra in CVA since CVA is also highly predictive in terms of its generalizations. This research paper will assess whether GamarraÃ¢â¬â¢s CVA as a predictive work follows the guidelines set by LAMP. By qualifying the CVA parts and foci with the twelve steps prescribed in LAMP, this paper seeks to fulfill its objective and deems that a definitive conclusion is possible to arrive at. Gamarra as a follower of LAMP as seen in his CVATo conclusively qualify whether Gamarra used the LAMP method in writing the CVA would require the tedious work of identifying whether the part of the LAMP are present in the CVA. This task is impeded by the fact that the final format of the CVA does not have the same labels as the LAMP; at least not as blatant. However, the idea that Gamarra used the LAMP in his CVA can be seen through the parts that his CVA put so much attention on (which follows LAMP prescriptions). These parts appears to have been presented in the CVA; these parts entails almost fifty percent accordance to the prescribe methodology in LAMP.In the whole CVA, the issue that holds the most bearing is the mitigation and prevention of conflicts in Bolivia. Gamarra and his tea m was more than solid in reiterating that the CVA will focus on Bolivia as a conflict prone country. This is the reason why Gamarra and his team spent a lot of time in trying to predict the possibilities of the occurrence of conflicts. Through the extensive research facts presented in the paper, it can even be said that the whole CVA seeks to answer one primary question, Ã¢â¬Å"What are the probable reasons that would cause conflicts to arise in Bolivia?Ã¢â¬ The CVA tried to find the answer for this question by grouping the conflicts in Bolivia in five major classifications, institutional, economic, land, coca/cocaine, and citizen and public security (Gamarra, 2003, p. 4). In the CVA, Gamarra and his team identified two major actors that can very much affect the outcome of the conflict resolution and mitigation in Bolivia- government and opposition. The MNR or Nationalist Revolutionary Movement represents the government; while the MAS or Movimiento al Socialismo leads the opposit ion. CVA attributed that these parties are the main actors in the Bolivian politics and conflicts.Misunderstandings and apathy between these two parties can easily translate the strong political divide to violent confrontations (Gamarra, 2003, p. 4). However, the CVA did not dismiss the possibility that the 2002 elections can also improve the conflict situation through these parties (Gamarra, 2003, p. 4). The government and the opposition perceive the issues of conflict in terms of their participations on the issues. The government side pride themselves in terms of the international economic and security support it has (Gamarra, 2003, p. 6).On the other hand, the opposition takes pride in the intermediation they are able to contribute to the conflict resolution process (Gamarra, 2003, p. 6). In the CVA Gamarra and his team provided contextualizing facts that would put the MAS led opposition and MNR led government in their places in the conflict situation. This attempt can be seen wi th the graphical representation that Gamarra and his team presented to show the divided opinions of the national actors regarding the appropriate type of government in Bolivia (Gamarra, 2003, p. 14).Gamarra further contextualized the conflicts in terms of the partisan opinion in considering the plausibility of military uprising (coup dÃ¢â¬â¢etat) in installing new types of government that parties see as more fitting to Bolivia (Gamarra, 2003, p. 12). Even if Gamarra and his team are loyal to LAMP in these parts of CVA, there are other parts of CVA that show that the CVA was not exclusively written through LAMP. The Contradictions, Shortcomings and Disloyalties of CVA to LAMP As said earlier, the CVA appears to be written through the LAMP; this can hold for the almost fifty percent of the CVA.However, in terms of the data gathering and presentation part of the CVA Gamarra and his team took a different path apart from LAMP. This claim can be supported with the different formulation of the conflict scenarios in the CVA when compared to the LAMP. In LAMP, the permutations of the alternative futures (z) follow a strict formula XY=Z that is determined by the number of actors (x) and the numbers of major scenarios (y) (LAMP, 2010, p. n. pag. ). The formula basis of LAMP insures uniformity in terms of the numbers of scenarios that would be required in predicting through certain national actors.In the CVA there are five major scenarios provided (counter narcotics, political institutions, citizen and public security, economic arena and land ownership). Raising the two identified actors by the five major scenarios will require thirty-two scenarios. On the other hand, the CVA was only able to provide 16 scenarios under the five major scenarios. Another shortcoming of the CVA was its failure to conduct proper pair wise comparison among the scenarios; this resulted to different scenarios provided under the five major scenarios.The scenarios of citizen and public security have four scenarios as compared to the three scenarios of all of the remaining major scenarios (counter- narcotics, political institutions, economic arena and land ownership. Due to the absence of a pair wise comparing mechanism, the CVA also lacks the qualifications of probabilities that are determined through Ã¢â¬Å"votesÃ¢â¬ from comparing pair wise. These characteristics of the CVA deviated by twenty- five percent from the total twelve steps prescribed in LAMP.On the other hand, CVA delivered the remaining twenty-five percent of LAMP in accordance to the prescriptions of LAMP. Gamarra and his team provided the needed information to establish consequential analysis, which the step 9 of LAMP prescribed. The steps 10, 11 and 12 are also included in the CVA through the imaginative conclusion presented in the CVA. The high dependency rate of the Gamarra and his teamÃ¢â¬â¢s conclusion with the numbers presented by the graphical representations follow the predictive nature of LAMP . Conclusion and RecommendationsTaking into account all of the investigations presented in this research paper it can be concluded that the Conflict Vulnerability Assessment of Bolivia is a hybrid research in terms of the methodologies it employed. The seventy five percent of the CVA was written in accordance with LAMP, but the twenty five percent of CVA does not coincide with the quantitative requirements of LAMP. The difference between LAMP and the methodology employed in CVA does not imply that the CVA is a failed predictive research. CVAÃ¢â¬â¢s use of different methods only show the flexibility that Gamarra and his team sought to establish in the CVA.Given this conclusion, this paper would recommend improvements for the two major aspects of the CVA- structure and methodology. It is recommendable that the CVA would use a paper structure or format that is more accessible in answering specific aspects of predictive research. The current arrangement of the CVA tends to make the is sue of Bolivian conflict too broad to discuss and even solve. The discussions without the recommended segmentation appear not only to be reiterating but also to be too general since the reference focal points overlap each other (as seen in the presentation of the scenarios).On the other hand, the methodology employed with the CVA appears to be improvable in terms of making the quantitative aspect of the methodology isolated and only catered as additional empirical references. A qualitative research method is probably more fitting to the undeniable culture sensitive and politics laden conflicts in Bolivia. Eduardo Gamarra and his team could have broken away from the conventions of quantitative predictive research by providing more vivid narrative accounts of the current and predicted conflict situations instead of standing on the methodological position of LAMP.The quantitative elaborateness in LAMP makes the quantitative shortcomings in CVA either half-truths or irrelevant; both pro babilities could have avoided if the CVA was treated as a qualitative research. Bibliography Gamarra, E. A. (2003). Conflict Vulnerability Assessment Bolivia. Retrieved August 5, 2010, from www. digitalcommons. flu. edu: http://digitalcommons. fiu. edu/cgi/viewcontent. cgi? article=1002&context=laccwps LAMP. (2010). The Application of LAMP. Retrieved August 5, 2010, from www. lamp-method. org: http://www. lamp-method. org/2. html
Saturday, September 28, 2019
As a mother figure, we would expect her to be a stereotypical Victorian Woman. Not only would she have to do all the domestic work, but also care and nurture her children, or in this case Pip. However, this is not quite the case with Mrs Joe. In many cases, when a mother brings up her child Ã¢â¬Å"by hand,Ã¢â¬ she would care and nurture for her child with a lot of love. Mrs Joe however, has adopted a different style of bringing up Pip, Ã¢â¬Å"by handÃ¢â¬ . She hits and slaps Pip, to bring him into line, and there is no evidence in the story that shows Mrs Joe loves Pip like she is expected to. This distant relationship is shown in the above quote. As Mrs Joe has an apron full of needles and pins, Pip cannot get close to her physically, and so this image of a young child clinging to its motherÃ¢â¬â¢s apron, is lost. This shows that as a woman in the Victorian times, this expectation of caring and nurturing your child with love is highly expected, but DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ has created a character that has completely overturned any expectation. As mentioned before, the image of a Victorian Woman is very stereotypical, but in DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ book, this is reversed because in ch 22 we see Mrs Pocket doing the total opposite. Although we do not see her or anyone do the housework, we can assume that because of the wealth her and her husband have that hired help is doing the domestic work. In the family, there are a number of young children who need to be nurtured by their mother, but always seem to be handed to the nannies, while she does something or the other, like reading a book about class. A subject that seems very important to her, maybe because of her up bringing in the higher-class society. Ã¢â¬Å"Mrs Pocket was sitting on a garden chair under a tree, reading, with her legs upon another garden chair; and Mrs PocketÃ¢â¬â¢s two nursemaids, were looking about them while the children playedÃ¢â¬ pg 186. The dependence on money is probably the main factor of how high a persons position is in society. This shows that Victorian Woman of high class know what little domestic work they have to do, and this is all due to their great wealth that they have. The dependence on money, and position in society is linked, represented by other various Victorian Women in the book. Mrs Joe seemed to be very excited about the fact that Pip had been invited over to a rich ladyÃ¢â¬â¢s house (Miss Havisham), and immediately questioned him about how it went, after his first meeting with her. She thought that because of Pip meeting with her, maybe she could have some kind of Ã¢â¬Å"connectionÃ¢â¬ with her, and the higher class. Ch 8 Ã¢â¬Å"With that she pounced upon me, like an eagle on a lamb, and my face was squeezed into wooden bowls in sinks, and my head was put under water butts, and I was soaped and kneaded, and towelledÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ pg 52. This shows that she wanted to make a good impression, to make herself look good through Pip, by how neat and well he looked, because of her efforts. A woman of a low class feels the need to know a person of much higher status than them, because they know about the great amount of luxury, the higher class live in, and the amount of wealth they have which could lead them (the lower class) to have a brighter future. Finally, we learn about Molly, Clara, and Miss Skiffins. Molly, as we soon find out is EstellaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, a former convict and now JaggersÃ¢â¬â¢ housekeeper. This makes EstellaÃ¢â¬â¢s position in society lower because of her family. Not much is known about her. Clara, HerbertÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is someone we can assume as being like Biddy, but not at all influential upon Pip, like Biddy. Finally Miss Skiffins, WemmickÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is also one of the characters we know very little about, but looks after WemmickÃ¢â¬â¢s father, the stereotypical image of a housewife is shown in Ã¢â¬Å"Great ExpectationsÃ¢â¬ very well. Usually a female, a housekeeper, is one who obeys her master, and does not intrude in what is going on in her masterÃ¢â¬â¢s affairs. This is shown in Molly and Jaggers relationship, although she has to do this as Jaggers is doing this as a favour. So as shown, there are many sides to a Victorian woman in this novel, and a few of the main characters that are influential on Pip, are very cold hearted, (Estella, Miss Havisham and Mrs Joe). I believe that Miss Havisham is so pitiless and spiteful that she adopted a young girl to seek out revenge on all men, just because of what happened to her. I also think that this book explores the many sides of a Victorian Woman very well, because the stereotypical image of Victorian Women being those who stay at home and do all the domestic work is overturned. 1)*According to Great Expectations what is a Ã¢â¬Å"GentlemenÃ¢â¬ ? In Great Expectations the word Ã¢â¬Å"GentlemenÃ¢â¬ is shown in many different ways by different characters. You can tell this by the things they say, what they do and what others say about them. The main people who show this are Pip, Joe and Magwitch. Pip Pumblechook Ã¢â¬â Throughout the rest of the novel, he will shamelessly take credit for PipÃ¢â¬â¢s rise in social status, even though he has nothing to do with it, since Magwitch, not Miss Havisham, is PipÃ¢â¬â¢s secret benefactor. Drummle In his mind, Pip has connected the ideas of moral, social, and educational advancement so that each depends on the others. The coarse and cruel Drummle, a member of the upper class, provides Pip with proof that social advancement has no inherent connection to intelligence or moral worth. DrummleÃ¢â¬â¢s negative example helps Pip to see the inner worth of characters such as Magwitch and Joe, and eventually to discard his immature fantasies about wealth and class in favor of a new understanding that is both more compassionate and more realistic.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Ask week 7 - Essay Example In what ways is this assertion true? Explain. It is apparent that according to Kash and Rycroft (2002), application of effective management and policy can break bad habits if the organization is not aligned to support the trajectory change. Do you find this to be true? If yes, explain how your organization can be changed through the use of this concept. It can be argued that your organization learned from tacit knowledge due to the fact that exploration and development departments have adopted transfer of knowledge from employee to the employee and from management to employees and vice versa. In what ways have this transfer of knowledge helped your organization? Explain. It can be argued that the first step towards your organization success through learning is by identifying gaps that exists in the organization and adopting tacit knowledge. However, there is also a need to have extended knowledge in order for your organization effectively to learn. Explain how your organization would utilize tacit knowledge and extended knowledge in order to help it solve the work-based
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Management Accounting Models - Essay Example The present research has identified that business finance is the term used to denote the funding activities for the efficient conduct of business activities. Therefore, business finance is helpful in many ways. Firstly, it helps to procure enough flow of funding required in business. Secondly, it is important for maintaining and enhancing better management system by supplying the required amount of capital. Lastly, it is the foremost factor for obtaining the adequate amount of profitability. The prime objective of a business is to generate profit by investing in projects. In order to fulfill the primary financial objectives, the decision makers of a company plan their financial activities. The planning of financial activities is known as budgeting and it is very vital for the smooth functioning of financial operations. A proper financial budgeting makes the entire operation efficient and effective. Budgeting plays a crucial role in the decision making the process for a company. Oberl in states that Ã¢â¬Å"budgets are the link between plans and actions. They translate strategic plans into the financial resources necessary to implement the planÃ¢â¬ . Companies prepare many types of budgets like capital budgets, sales budgets, production budgets, cash budgets, inventory budgets etc for planning their operational activities. In fact, the budgets help the organizations to achieve the organizational and financial target on behalf of all the departments.
Student survival guide - Essay Example Actions plans are required in the present times since there is so much work that a student does. He does not get the time to study in an age of Internet and changing technological regimes. He is surrounded with so much information that studies seem to take a back step, which by all accounts is an unfortunate thing to know. A student must understand that finding the much needed information and data which could assist with his studies is indeed a task that he has to take on his own and this he could do in an effective manner if he knows which libraries he can access the information from and in what manner this search could be made possible in an effective and efficient way. For this to happen, he must ensure that he is well read with the Internet and knows how to use this technological superpower which has hit the academic world like any other, in the times of today. If he knows how to conduct correct search of data and information on the Internet, then he knows how to devise a proper plan for his studies and this indeed is half the job done and that too in a good enough manner. Personal action plans are devised in a manner that makes best use of the library searches so as to get the most productive and up to date information which is needed and these plans look at the maximization of resources as much as possible. What this means is the fact that conducting one such successful library research is the basis of extracting the needed information in the wake of knowledge acquisition and the eventual development of details related with the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s resource. Also there must be a lot of emphasis on finding the websites which provide authentic information and not mere hearsay. This can be made use of by employing the search engines and the genuine e-libraries which are present on the World Wide Web. Academic honestly must be upheld at all times by the students so that they learn something constructive with the passage of time and
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
The Declaration of Bankruptcy as a Legal Way - Research Proposal Example Most bankruptcies would not only involve one creditor but many. Debts are usually classified as secured and unsecured (Bankruptcy Alberta, n.d.). Secured debts originate from valuable assets that come with a security agreement allowing a creditor to take back the assets if a debtor fails to pay or abide by the terms of the agreement with the creditor. Car leases, home mortgages, rent-to-own, and other installment purchase contracts are examples of secured debts. The assets such as the car or house in these contracts are given up as collateral if the debtor is unable to pay. The second type of debts is unsecured debt. This type of debt includes credit cards, overdrafts and the general day-to-day bills that people pay on a regular basis. These debts are often referred to as trade debts. For secured debts, when a debtor is declared bankrupt, the creditor cannot make him pay and his chance to take back the assets from the debtor is very limited. For unsecured debts, the creditors cannot force a debtor who is declared bankrupt to pay regular bills. Unsecured contracts are terminated by a bankruptcy. If a debtor receives a discharge from bankruptcy, the creditorÃ¢â¬â¢s right to collect no longer exists. Several laws including the Bankruptcy Code enacted in 1978 govern all bankruptcy cases. The primary goal of these laws is to give debtors a financial fresh start from burdensome debt. It allows the debtor to start anew, uninhibited by the pressures and discouragements of preexisting debts. The goal to cancel debts is accomplished by a bankruptcy discharge. It is a publication that basically releases the debtor from being liable for specific debts and forbids the creditor to take any action against the debtor to collect those debts. The bankruptcy discharge is in a question-and-answer format. It seeks to provide information regarding the timing of the dischargeÃ¢â¬âwhich of the debts are discharged and which are not, any objections to the discharge and how the dis charge can be revoked. It also includes the actions a debtor can take in the case that the creditor still collects a discharged debt after the bankruptcy is concluded. There are other parties involved in the bankruptcy. Filing bankruptcy cannot be easily done by any person who wishes to be relieved of debts. He must first be qualified to be declared bankrupt. The party responsible for this is the bankruptcy judge, who functions as a judicial officer. He decides whether or not a debtor is eligible for bankruptcy and whether or not he should be should be discharged of his debts. More often than not, the bankruptcy process is conducted away from the courthouse because it is administrative. In some cases, another party, the trustee is appointed to oversee the case. The trustee is appointed through the United States Trustee Program of the Department of Justice. He administers the bankruptcy and represents the interests of the bankruptcy estate (Shoemaker & Dart, P.S., 2010). By far, ther e had been many types of bankruptcies but generally, there are three main types. The types of bankruptcies are named after the chapters in which they appear in the Bankruptcy Code. In most resources, these three types of bankruptcies are considered the main types: Chapter 7, Chapter 11, and Chapter 13. Chapter 7 type of bankruptcy is entitled Liquidation. It is sometimes. This involves the sale for cash of nonexempt property (includes such assets as bank accounts, stocks, and bonds) and the
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Career management in business - Essay Example In the changing demands by businesses in the modern era, career management is a necessity to adapt to the changing environmental demands. The mode in which careers are studied in the organizational context take the form whereby careers are shaped by organizations and they as well shape themselves up through both theoretical and systematic approaches (Denison, 1996). It is often interesting to realize how the day to day work around companies and businesses are based on technology hence the way in which work is conducted around such work places is highly altered. It is also worthwhile to realize how scientists are on the rise in terms of numbers hence the crop of modernization is likely to go up. To cope up with all theses changes at the work place it is advisable to therefore be necessary to keep our knowledge current and skills (Arthur, Inkson & Pringle, 1999). II. The Career Management Practices in use today To mange an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s career plan successfully so as to achieve the necessary development some of the following practices may be adopted. First, provide the employees with career planning workshops while conducting constant assessment on them. The managers should be placed under career workshops. Employee career centers can be created within the organizations to encourage employees to constantly go for performance check (Fombrun, Tichy & Devanna, 1984). The management can also give open career briefing to enable the employees have a chance of planning their careers. These can be within a defined timeframe or through the relevant media to ensure that there is no lapse at all. Furthermore, a team of internal network of information providers so that information can always reach the parties concerned of for example the nature of work and their job qualifications. The internal job and talent banks ought to be maintained since it enables employees to frequently peruse through which employees learn about open positions and the skills required from them. O ther practices include: - establishment of individual learning accounts, starting a mentoring program formally as they are effective in ensuring employee retention by quite a big percentage (Ghoshal & Bartlett, 1997). III. Why organizations should implement supportive career management practices There are numerous reasons as to why it is appropriate for organizations to adopt and implement career management practices most so due to the changing work environment and dynamic workforce. Firstly, such practices enable the employees take charge of their careers by in the first instance assessing their abilities, interests and values. Such practices will enable the employees engage in planning process where they dig deep into the organizations needs hence determining the future options for the organizations and how to prepare for them. Secondly, through the career management practices, managers in many business organizations are able to learn how to support and reward employee efforts thr ough becoming familiar with their career assessment and planning process hence practicing vital techniques of career planning. Thirdly, career management practices can create a situation in the organization where services become automated and modernized hence able to incorporate all round feedbacks, competency assessment, confidential counseling, career management and resilience training (Gratton, 2000). Furthermore, career management
Monday, September 23, 2019
Leadership Styles of of the Royal Bahamas Police Force and its Impact on the employees and the country - Research Paper Example Leadership entails provision of divine directions by an authoritative individual or body, having been mandated by a functional body. Distinct entities have earlier practiced different leadership styles due to organizational or institutional settings in use. The royal Bahamas police force is a relevant example of variation in leadership styles, thereby experiencing different effects at distinct times and seasons. Leadership transitions are also a source of varying impacts among organizational employees as well as the entire leadership. Every country, however, usually has a security-keeping body that is charged with the responsibility of guarding the state as per the law requirements. Security bodies are usually in the leadership of royal commissioners, ordained by the minister for security in a nation, and serving under a president or rather the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s overall leader, always the commander of the armed forces. The most commonly identified leadership styles within an organizat ion or a state are democratic or autocratic. The democratic leadership is one where decision-making is not entirely for the overall leader, but provides a chance for the employees to demonstrate their participation in every activity of the institution. Mainly, the leadership management within a security body should distinctly differ from the leadership of business organization or any economic boosting corporation. Every form of leadership, however, has its benefits in addition to disadvantages, depending on its realms of practice. Most countries have long faced conflicts emanating from poor leadership as well as leadership misuse in the security institutions (Griffith, 1993). The discussion in this paper addresses leadership styles that have taken preeminence in the earlier years at the royal Bahamas police force, owing to the frequent change of the institutional commissioners. To enhance this understanding, it is ample to investigate into the impact of the styles of leadership at t he royal Bahamas police force. It is also important to look into a comparative analysis of the RBFP with the Bahamas Electicity Corporation (a private corporation) as well as that of the RBFP with the Royal Customs (a public corporation). The Royal Bahamas Police Force The royal Bahamas police force is an entity that is charged with law enforcement in the Bahamas commonwealth. The Ministry of National Security portfolio is the main location of the RBPF in Bahamas. Its inception dates back in the 1840,s, with its initial stages comprising of only sixteen people, who were then under the leadership of General John Pinder. It also comprised of night guards as well as slaves who were willing to provide extra security to their nation. The inception of the force was not aimed at provision of military services, but rather patrolling the New Providence Island for twenty-four hours a day. Its progress was awesome and lasts for several years, which saw some members of the group being transferr ed to other neighboring islands to take patrol charge. The end of the 1840 saw the patrol consist of the Inspector General in addition to thirty Sergeants and Privates, as well as Corporals (Griffith, 1993)
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Christian virtues Essay No general code of conduct covers both of them as if the kingdom of God had dawned before its time, Left-wing political idealists and just war theorists fail to distinguish these two hands of God and try to reconcile the tension between them, often at the expense of the state. They try to impose Christian virtues such as love and mercy upon the state but fail to recognize the depravity of our present lot and the need for the state to restrain its evils. Communism might have found its place in the early church with Ã ° people who were prepared to share all their possessions (Acts 2.43, 44; 4. 32), but this economic system does not work in the unregenerate world of laziness and selfishness. Pacifism might have served the church and its members well as Ã ° witness to divine grace and mercy, but the state would abdicate its responsibilities before God if it did not bear the sword and protect its citizens from criminals. It was Thomas Aquinas, not Augustine, who developed just war theory along the natural law tradition. Augustine did not discriminate clear, universal principles in order to declare Ã ° society or its wars just. He saw Ã ° distinct dichotomy between private behavior, which might refuse the use of the sword in self-defense, and the public right of the state to defend itself for the good of the community. Machiavelli agreed and spoke of two moralities subsisting side-by-side, the morality of the individual soul and the morality of the city. Some actions, while not virtuous from Ã ° private or Christian views, are still absolutely necessary if one wishes to defend the Republic. Protestant theologians tend to agree with this assessment. Emil Brunner did not believe that we could impose Ã ° version of absolute justice on Ã ° world darkened with sin. In the old Testament God did not impose Ã ° ban on divorce Ã¢â¬Ëbecause of the hardness of their heartsÃ¢â¬â¢, even if Ã¢â¬Ëit was not this way from the beginningÃ¢â¬â¢ and absolute justice would demand otherwise. Relative justice is all we can hope for in the realm of society and Ã ° world fallen from its original image. (Amit 2003 127) Reinhold Niebuhr rejected the possibility of doing well without causing some evil. In the real world, one must become tainted with its evil and fight force with force. So useful have terrorist attacks been to advancing the neocon agenda that hawks are intent on provoking more. As William Arkin wrote in the Los Angeles Times, Rumsfelds Defense Science Board recommended in 2002 the creation of Ã ° super secret Ã¢â¬Å"Proactive, Preemptive Operations Group (P2OG) to bring together CIA and military covert action, information warfare, intelligence, and cover and deception. Among other things, this body would launch secret operations aimed at `stimulating reactions among terrorists and states possessing weapons of mass destructionÃ¢â¬âthat is, for instance, prodding terrorist cells into action and exposing themselves to `quick-response attacks by U. S. forces. Such tactics would `signal to harboring states that their sovereignty will be at risk. Ã¢â¬ (Amy 2004 38) Another argument can be made that Islamist extremism, however it arose, can be combated more effectively if Ã ° larger number of citizens have Ã ° stake in non-extremist, increasingly democratized political systems. More freedom should be created to foster enhanced political participation and human investment in Middle Eastern states. Ã greater degree of participation may occur without the implementation of other requisites of democracy. If our definition of freedom is free elections, Ã ° free press, and labor unionsÃ¢â¬âit is absent in Saudi Arabia. Supporters of the Kingdom point to other methods of creating balance and justice in society, whereby the royal family protects the citizens and defends their values in exchange for their loyalty. While this may smack of feudalism to the reader, such bargains were fulfilled in Islamic history through the Ottoman concept of the circle of equity; self-governance of religious minorities; and the recognition of local, tribal, and familial authorities. Todays Middle Eastern rulers are facing similar questions about the ways that democratization will alter earlier understandings of leadership or threaten its longevity. Ã¢â¬Å" (Sherifa 2005 28)
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Etihad Airways Selection Techniques Analysis In principle, to ensure that Etihad Airways company moves towards addressing differences in the work-force profile, such Project Manager Emirati Cabin Crew assistance should be available for any possible to ask who meets the basic requirements of the job. () On the other words, the job advertisement, which should be closely based on the person specification, where appropriate, includes detailed reason for significant professional individuals to seek. A mechanism for applications should be specified, which would generally be in the shape of a standard Project Manager Emirati Cabin Crew application form designed to obtain information relevant to the job. Furthermore, every applicant ought to obey through the application course of action. The selection decision should eventually be made by more than one person who has a thorough knowledge of the work required for the Project Manager Emirati Cabin Crew position. Moreover, a Selection Panel is, as a result, requisite, which ought to take account at least single person who has been trained in selection practices, furthermore understands Etihad Airways groups selection procedure. All members of the selection committee ought to be implicated in the short-listing procedures. () On the other hand, the candidate specification for the Project Manager Emirati Cabin Crew position will figure the starting point of the selection resolution. Additionally, records ought to be kept on the scope to which every nominee meets up the necessities of every feature of the nominee pattern. 3) Selecting Best Candidate: In todays changing environment, one of the biggest challenges facing Human and Resources Managers is recruiting and retaining employees with the right skills. For that reason, a framework of ethical practice, the Recruitment and Selection should be developed in conjunction with employers along with the specialists as an externally assessable tool to assist employers with recruitment issues. On the other hand, selection process is a later stage of the recruitment. Since, it involves choosing appropriate along with qualified applicants suited to the job. Moreover, selection is a social, interactive entertainment as well as skill development, which are recommended for the use of structured and tested methods to achieve objectivity, reliability along with reduced risk in addition to uncertainty. In Etihad Airways Company, many prospective interviewees might comprise the essential character for the effectual presentation of the Project Manager Emirati Cabin Crew occupation, but require experience or even credentials throughout not having appropriate chances. () For that reason, mare and more care ought to be taken, and so, in the specification of requirements of the Project Manager Emirati Cabin Crew post has to be ensured since statements of action in addition to type of event along with academic as well as training requirements are justified. The terms and conditions under which the Project Manager Emirati Cabin Crew position holder is to be engaged should be reliable with the present workforce policies of Etihad Airways Company. () Etihad Airways Company might use a merit-based way to optimize the potential for selecting the most suitable candidate for Project Manager Emirati Cabin Crew job. The method, which may be, used a combination of written application, behavioral based interview questions, testing or even presentations. This approach has been established in Etihad Airways Company to ensure the best possible selection moreover that there is not fairness on foundation unconnected to the necessities of the Project Manager Emirati Cabin Crew position. () On the other hand, each ignoring of such a situation ought to be sustained through a written depiction of the function as well as tasks of the same vacant position. Therefore, this will typically be in the appearance of an occupation description of the Project Manager Emirati Cabin Crew position. () Care is needed in their arrangements to ensure that all aspects are justified. On the other hand, such post description ought to be escorted through a comprehens ive individual requirement that will figure the foundation of whichever selection assessment for the appointment of Project Manager Emirati Cabin Crew. Since objectivity is hard to get through interview alone, a variety of selection manners may be established, extremely close based on the individual requirements for Project Manager Emirati Cabin Crew position, which may contain work-related tests or even assessments. Nevertheless, thought might be taken when selecting or even designing tests along with analyzing their results to make sure that they are available from unfairness. Interview questions might be chosen with care moreover, designed to obtain the information covered in the person specification. Particular attention should be taken to fill up using questions, which might indicate a desire to make a call into account inappropriate material. Interview format as well as contented should be applied consistently toward every candidates interviewed. Records might be held for every of the candidates which represent the position to which the requirements of the different parameters were met. Furthermore, these records might be kept for at least of six months following the selection. Candidates might want to take delivery of response about their performance in the selection process. Moreover, such feedback may only be provided with a reasonable person directly involved in the selection decision. The purpose of an interview is to obtain specific data from a candidate to resolve his or even her aptitude to carry out the occupation. However, successful interviewers learn how to use the right kind questions, how to avoid the candidate talking about facts data knowledge, moreover how to pay attention. A great deal of what is educated concerning candidates in an interview is found on their previous practices. On the other hand, past performance is the best indicator of future performance. Consequently, this does not signify that somebody who had carried out badly in the earlier period cannot enhance in skills as well as thoughts. Generally, however, It can be seen a change in working through specific jobs or assignments. () Sometimes interviewers believe that an applicant who has done somewhat has made it fine or that prolonged existence on a Project Manager Emirati Cabin Crew position is a sign of success. A credit record can corroborate the excellence of the work presentation. It is necessary to be well prepared when conducting the interview to ensure the recruitment process remains effective, clear and consistent, and to preserve the most suitable candidate for the position of the Project Manager Emirati Cabin Crew. 4) Candidate Orientation: Recruitment and selection grant managers to establish and steadily uplift the behavioral characteristics and the ability of the workforce. The appeal for most attention has focused on people with a preference for working through others as opposed to the individualist preferred by recruiters earlier. Attention has switched from testing lists of skills and abilities to broader-based competencies. In general, there is a greater concern for personal flexibility along with adaptability, a reorientation from the contribution towards future stability. Offer letters are contractual agreements between the employee and Etihad Airways Company. Therefore, considerable care should be taken to secure that the information contained in them is true also that all parties involved understand all of its components. The concern section or department should have approval from the management on all points contained in a proposal before it is extended. The same sector at Etihad Airways Company will be held liable for any prohibited items contained in offers. To avoid future confusion, departments at Etihad Airways Company, should take suitable documents for whichever obligations made to a nominee for the situation of the Project Manager Emirati Cabin Crew. It is much easier to maintain certification to submit to somewhat than depend on remembrance, particularly given that the propose might extent numerous years, additionally there may be a variety of sources. () This offer letter with the start date, title, work location, supervisor, and wages should be sent to the one selected, with a copy in the personnel files. Etihad Airways Company should respond in writing with an acceptance letter. Moreover, offer letters may serve as a legally binding contract. Therefore, it should be avoid terms such as permanent or career, these may cause significant strain. Hiring employees are like a business transaction, not terribly different from selecting supplies for Etihad Airways Company. When a need for supplies. Then it may be looked for merchandise that is of exceptional quality and an agreeable deal. Similarly, it is known what it may be needed in Etihad Airways Company; now it may be looked for someone whose skills and qualifications meet your business needs. A good way to improve the questioning technique is to examine. Practice the phrasing of questions prior to conducting interviews. Add some specific questions to the interviews and evaluate the types of responses it might be tried. Analysis each interview to learn how to improve the style. Good questioning skills can positively enhance the interviewing success. Taking the time to check references, it is worth it. Therefore, checking references can be a time consuming task as well Etihad Airways Company had abandoned the idea of doing some more than a cursory verification of a few facts. For that reason, the cost to Etihad Airways Company of a hiring error is harmful; it is preferable to take the time to get the right selection procedure in the primary situate. On the other hand, Etihad Airways programs provide challenging with unprecedented opportunities for shared reflection. In this way, such conduct creates in Etihad Airways learning surroundings contained by a compassionate impression, which in revolve carry about learning conclusion away from those of the classic cases in the Etihad Airways. () Given that such appearance which can be more sensible than replications, furthermore while it offers an opportunity for career through the same experience in the Etihad Airways, it proves extremely useful in training and complex situations where resistance to change is endemic or where an attitude of certain conservative thinking exists. () Moreover, Etihad Airways Provide a cost effective, best practice approaches to training and development through effective implementation of the new framework of qualifications of Etihad Airways staff. 5) Techniques Evaluation: In such case, we have a Project Manager Emirati Cabin Crew position, as a valid case, Etihad Airways Company strategic approach to hiring, retaining along with promoting staff has resulted in superior illustration at all ranks of the company. Etihad Airways Company supports local employees through its Emiratization Employee Networks. A Strategic Approach started at earlier stages by the senior leadership, Etihad Airways Company provides tools for managing employees, working with their supervisors to develop career paths, moreover, develop skills along with experiences that work toward achieving their career aspirations. Advantages of Etihad Airways Selection Techniques: 1) Using technology for efficiency reasons: Etihad Airways might be acting as the first group who utilized computerized systems at its work. That is not excluding accounts and business activities, besides converting most of its exchanges and transmissions works into the digital era. 2) Replace people with technology: As more of technology is introduced, less of people might be required to achieve the same job. One of the main goals of Etihad Airways is to reduce the percentage of the junior workers because they are not UAE local people and Etihad Airways has not gained more power to execute such percentage. Disadvantages of Etihad Airways Selection Techniques: 1. Lower labor costs: Although Etihad Airways tries to seduce local UAE people to the people by giving them particularly attractive compensation, in consequence, they are paying less for learning junior staff comparing to the other sector in UAE such like Etihad staff. In addition, Etihad Airways adopted 5 working days per week for help duties; but operational functions are working in shifts. Etihad Airways is depending more on contractors labor history for some of its use and external works requirements. 2. Low cost recruitment and training: Etihad Airways is exceedingly rare to fight for job vacancy, as it is performing a beautiful place to identify at UAE market. On the other hand, for junior staff, it is usually employing directly from Asian low wages countries. On the other hand, Etihad depends on its training center at Abu Dhabi for most of senior staff and all lower staff. More to the fact, which is conducting in consideration consultation and training sessions at specified places of work. Training there is only for local UAE senior staff. Therefore, in order to fulfill the recommendations made in the Etihad Airways Company overview and to be effectively implemented the reform agenda and the learning management system, the goals are: Employment at Etihad Airways, should comply with the real demand of the work force in Etihad Airways Company in order to avoid unnecessary utilization. At Etihad Airways, comprehensive computerized tests should be introduced in order to have a fair assessment of potential candidates covering basic skills to have such as computer applications, management and analytical skills. Recruitment strategies at Etihad Airways, should abide through other parts of human resources such as reimbursement and training, which have a significant impact on attracting and retaining this active labor force. In order to achieve the desired percentage of Emiratization at Etihad Airways, take over should be minimized to a reasonable rate and that cannot be reached without an efficient coordination with other departments in Etihad Airways Company, compensation, training and development, employee relations to look over the main constraints for the high percentage of turnover. Planning and Follow-up Section at Etihad Airways, should reflect the assigned functions/roles to follow up new recruits job after joining the company, that is includes providing appropriate training programs, career development and solving grievances in order to help retaining these high caliper employees. Applying through the Internet at Etihad Airways, should be introduced to improve the image of Etihad Airways Company and make it easy for the applicants. Applicants can offer their resumes also fill up in the arranged application figure as well as to have more accommodation options such as reserving the timely and perfect timing for taking the test and interview. Advertisement in newspapers for specific positions at Etihad Airways might introduce in order to get the most appropriate people needed to register on the needed time. Etihad Airways Company should try to eliminate all obstacles and difficulties in the way to achieve its pivotal position to determine amortization percentage to respectful one by analyzing reasons of development and try to minimize it.
Friday, September 20, 2019
The Ionic Column Throughout history, art has become the main source for entertainment, enlightenment, and acknowledgement. It entertains those who are bored in the everyday life. It enlightens those who seek another world and those who seek beauty with wild imaginations. It acknowleges those who seek development in nature and their own world. From the cave drawings of Paleolithic art in Lascaux , to the Ancient Egyptian pyramids, and to the classical Greek sculptures, art is a never ending cycle of productions and reproductions passed on from one generation to the next, and from one culture to the next. Art throughout history plays an important role because it tells us about man's development in culture, language, and life. Everyday, the works of art from the past have been reproduced to inspire and attract. As a key strategic method to attract people, advertisement is the common benefactor for the reminesences of art throughout the periods, such as, the classical Greek Ionic columns. So there are ne w uses of older art works in many places, including magazines, newspapers, television, internet, and shopping malls. ( Prof. Smith lecture). In this essay, a trace of the Ionic column may be found from a page in The Wall Street Journal that may have distinctive similarities and differences in its physical usage and psychological meaning. A new usage of an old work of art is found in the Wall Street Journal which has words formed into the shape of an Ionic column in black and white, found in a classical Greek order. The newspaper was dated October 9, 1996 and the new use of this classical Greek order was found in the last page of section B12. This Ionic shaped column is big and long, considering the fact that the size of the newspaper is bigger than 11 by 17 inches. The image of the size in the new use column may have been to imitate the actual size of Greek column approximately of over 12 feet tall. (Refer to picture of 5 columns and the Wall Street Journal). This ionic column is so detailed by the formation of companies' name, letterings, showing distinctive characteristics from other classical Greek orders. It has fluted shaft and the capital was decorated with volutes or two pairs of scrolls with graceful curves joined by a thin abacus, which is a square block to support the entablature.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Ivan Pavlov and Classical Conditioning 1904 Nobel Prize Winner, Ivan Pavlov was born in Ryazan, Russia on September 14, 1849. Pavlov is best known for his intricate workings with the drooling dog experiment that lead to his further research in conditioning. This experiment, which began in 1889, had an influence on the development of physiologically oriented behaviorist theories of psychology in the early years of the nineteenth century. His work on the physiology of the digestive glands won him the 1904 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. CONTRIBUTIONS Pavlov's first independent work focused on the physiology of the circulation of the blood (Girogian, 1974). He studied the influence of variations in blood volume on blood pressure. He also investigated the nervous control of the heart, and argued that four types of nerves control rhythm and strength of cardiac contractions. It was during this first independent study that Pavlov used unanesthetized, neurologically intact dogs (Girogian, 1974). This method became the mainstay of PavlovÃ¢â¬â¢s methodology. PavlovÃ¢â¬â¢s second independent work centered primarily around digestion. He started studying digestion as early as 1879, and it was his major focus from 1890 to 1897 (Girogian, 1974). His work was an accumulation of observations on the nervous control of one organ system through the method of chronic experiment (Girogian, 1974). The study of digestion involved developing "fistulas" through which secretions from salivary glands, stomach, the pancreas, and small intestine could be collected (Girogian, 1974). His technique was truly unique in that he did not cut the nerve supply nor contaminate the secretions with food. The most famous and well-known experiment of Pavlov is that he 'conditioned' dogs to start a salivary response to the sound of a bell. He began by measuring the amount of salivation in response to only food. As the experiments continued, he rang a bell as he presented the food (Girogian, 1974). Again, he noted a salivary response. Finally, by only ringing the bell, Pavlov observed the same response as having presented food to the dogs . . . salivation (Girogian, 1974). These experiments defined what has been a "conditioned response". CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning is the type of learning made famous by Pavlov's experiments ... ... a Nobel Laureate for his research in a different field (Fredholm, 1999). In 1904, he received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his pioneering studies of how the digestive system works. Until Pavlov started to scrutinize this field, our knowledge of how food was digested in the stomach, and what mechanisms were responsible for regulating this, were quite foggy. In order to understand the process, Pavlov developed a new way of monitoring what was happening. He surgically made fistulas in animals' stomachs, which enabled him to study the organs and take samples of body fluids from them while they continued to function normally (Fredholm, 1999). WORKS CITED "Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich," MicrosoftÃ ® EncartaÃ ® Online Encyclopedia 2001 http://encarta.msn.com Ã © 1997-2000 Microsoft Corporation. Mischel W. (1993). Behavioral conceptions. In W. Mischel, Introduction to Personality, 295-316. New York: Harcourt Brace. Girogian, NA: Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich. In The Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Charles SchribnerÃ¢â¬â¢s Sons, New York, Vol 10, pp. 431-6, 1974. Fredholm, Lotta. Ivan Pavlov. Science Journal. May 15, 1999.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Comparison of In Mrs. Tilscher's Class and Originally Ã¢â¬ËIn Mrs TilscherÃ¢â¬â¢s classÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËOriginallyÃ¢â¬â¢ are poems about the journey of life and the change from childhood into adulthood. Although Ã¢â¬ËOriginallyÃ¢â¬â¢ is more traumatic there are many similarities between the two poems. They are both about moving on both spiritually and mentally, and explore ideas about identity and emigration. Ã¢â¬ËIn Mrs TilscherÃ¢â¬â¢s ClassÃ¢â¬â¢ is a poem about the metaphorical journey throughout a young childÃ¢â¬â¢s school year. The first verse of the poem has a joyful tone; the narrator of the poem seems happy and full of delight. It is written from a young girlÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective on the things that take place in the course of the school year. The young girl who is narrating the poem explains to the reader both the things that she liked and disliked. The poem is written in chronological order and the different verses of the poem represent different periods throughout the school year. The first verse of the poem starts with: Ã¢â¬ËYou could travel up the Blue Nile with your finger, tracing the route while Mrs Tilscher chanted the sceneryÃ¢â¬â¢. This creates a vivid picture of the children tracing the route of the Nile on a map while Mrs Tilscher described the scenery and surroundings to the children. After learning about the Nile and its surroundings for an hour the children paused for a break to drink a Ã¢â¬Ëskittle of milkÃ¢â¬â¢. A skittle of milk was a small glass bottle containing 1/3 pint of milk. Children used to refer to it as a Ã¢â¬ËskittleÃ¢â¬â¢ because that is what it looked like. This shows the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s innocence and immaturity. Verse two describes how much the narrator loved being in Mrs TilscherÃ¢â¬â¢s class. It is described as being Ã¢â¬Ëbetter than homeÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ËThe .. ... used is very clear as it explains how the parents are feeling. Ã¢â¬ËI want my own country, I saidÃ¢â¬â¢ This line sums up just how young and immature the narrator is. It is written in italics to give effect, to make it stand out because this line has great meaning to it. The third verse describes the girl reminiscing on how she felt adapting to the changes. Ã¢â¬ËYou forget, or donÃ¢â¬â¢t recall, or change, and seeing your brother swallow a slug, feel only a skelf of shame.Ã¢â¬â¢ She is now starting to fit in but still feels a sense of loss. Ã¢â¬ËI remember my tongue shedding its skin like a snakeÃ¢â¬â¢. This simile is very descriptive and you can vividly picture a snake shedding its skin. This corresponds to the changes the narrator is going through. I think she now feels embarrassed about the way she used to speak. She hesitates when asked where she originally came from.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Write about the effectiveness of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s imagery in The Banquet, Balcony and Monument Scenes of Ã¢â¬Å"Romeo and JulietÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"That which we call a rose by any other word would smell as sweet. Ã¢â¬ Shakespeare uses imagery and metaphors throughout Ã¢â¬Å"Romeo and JulietÃ¢â¬ to great effect. By using language, instead of props or backdrops to produce a vivid picture, he is engaging the audience more and making them think for themselves. This dramatic technique is used to the best effect in the Banquet, Balcony and Monument scenes, when portraying Romeo and JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s love. The Banquet scene is the first time Romeo sees Juliet, so the language used has to make a big impact so as to convey to the Elizabethan audience that this is true love, in contrast with RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s infatuation with Rosaline. Ã¢â¬Å"O she doth teach the torches to burn brightÃ¢â¬ . Shakespeare uses alliteration on Ã¢â¬Å"teach the torchesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"burn brightÃ¢â¬ to make RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s words sound more beautiful and poetic, ideally like a sonnet. The words are coincidently very much like one of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s sonnets, Sonnet 21, where he contrasts light with dark. Shakespeare uses this same comparison throughout the play to convey emotions, foreshadow tragedy and express the stages of the young love to the audience. In a way, Romeo and JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s devotion is like light against the dark background of feuding families. By claiming that Juliet is brighter than any other torch, Romeo is directly comparing her to other girls, in particular Rosaline. When Romeo speaks of Rosaline, he uses the language of Elizabethan courtly love. All his feelings are quite contained in comparison to the poetic imagery he uses upon seeing Juliet for the first time. He says about Rosaline Ã¢â¬Å"SheÃ¢â¬â¢s fair I loveÃ¢â¬ , which in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s time was the sort of language one would use when describing their love. However, Romeo describes JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s beauty as Ã¢â¬Å"too rich for useÃ¢â¬ and later claims that he Ã¢â¬Å"neÃ¢â¬â¢er saw true beauty till this nightÃ¢â¬ . The audience knows straight away that this is true love. But the audience is also aware of the fact that this love is doomed, and there is some irony in a number of RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s lines. Ã¢â¬Å"Beauty too rich for use, for earth too dearÃ¢â¬ . This suggests that Juliet is out of RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s reach, which, being a Capulet, she is. He is also comparing her to an angel or heavenly creature, which he does throughout the play. This is ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s way of showing that although these are young lovers, they are very spiritual too. The idea that she belongs to heaven because she is too good for earth builds up a feeling of unease and sadness in the audience, as they know she is going to die and therefore will not belong to the Earth anymore. This spiritual imagery is used when the lovers exchange their first words. Romeo tries to entice Juliet by referring to her as his Ã¢â¬Å"holy shrineÃ¢â¬ and to his lips as Ã¢â¬Å"two blushing pilgrimsÃ¢â¬ . This shows Romeo to be a more sensitive and poetic character, which makes the audience, and Juliet, fall in love with him. By referring to her as his Ã¢â¬Å"holy shrineÃ¢â¬ he is showing the audience that he idolises her, and sees himself as lowly compared to her beauty. This speech between them is laid out in sonnet form. Sonnets are generally about love, which emphasises to the audience that Romeo and Juliet are in love. It also contributes to RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s poetic image. Upon walking home later that evening, Romeo decides he has to see Juliet again. He finds his way into her garden and stands by the balcony. Romeo sees Juliet at her window. He exaggerates the pale flicker of the candlelight to describe it as the East. Ã¢â¬Å"But soft, what light through yonder window breaks? It is the east and Juliet is the sun. Ã¢â¬ Shakespeare is using RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s dialogue to Ã¢â¬Å"lightÃ¢â¬ the stage. He puts a clear image into the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s minds. Again Romeo is comparing Juliet to light; this time the sun, the brightest light of all. This is his poetic way of declaring that she is the brightest and most beautiful of girls. It also signifies how very important she is to him, as the sun is imperative to everyday life. The light from JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s window is said to Ã¢â¬Å"breakÃ¢â¬ through. This could imply a breakthrough in RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s love life; he has found his soul mate. In the Balcony scene Shakespeare uses language about the moon to help create a scene in the audience memberÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. This means they are more involved in the play, and can imagine themselves there in the moonlight. Ã¢â¬Å"Arise fair sun and kill the envious moon, Who is already sick and pale with grief That thou her maid art far more fair than she. Ã¢â¬ It is interesting that Romeo compares JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s beauty to the moon here, as he has just described her as his sun. In mythology, Diana, the Goddess of the moon, is served by virgin maids. Being a virgin, Juliet is depicted as one of these maids, but Romeo believes that Diana is jealous of JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s beauty. He asks her to stop serving the moon, and therefore stop being a virgin and become his lover instead. This shows Romeo is passionate in a sexual way about Juliet, which would be quite exciting to an Elizabethan audience member, as sex was not as commonly talked about as it is now. The fact that the moon is Ã¢â¬Å"sick and pale with griefÃ¢â¬ could be foreshadowing future grief for the couple. By asking the sun to arise, Romeo is wishing the day to come, therefore reminding the audience that it is night. When Romeo decides to reveal himself to Juliet she, feeling embarrassed and shocked, asks him who he is. Of course he has recently discovered she is the daughter of his familyÃ¢â¬â¢s enemy, and feels his name is hurtful to her. Ã¢â¬Å"By a name I know not how to tell thee who I am. My name, dear saint, is hateful to myself,Because it is an enemy to thee. Ã¢â¬ Romeo and Juliet strongly believe in their names being a now unwanted allegiance to their family. Despite the fact that their names are just words, both of the star crossed lovers feel they are chains, locking them to their families, and keeping them away from each other. Again he refers to Juliet as a Ã¢â¬Å"saintÃ¢â¬ . This would seem high praise to an audience of very religious Elizabethans. In Shakespearean times, exploring was very popular and a lot of new lands were being found. Because travel was not as easy then as it is now, and the knowledge of the world was not as advanced, exploring new lands was very exciting and appealing to the Elizabethans, which was why it was a popular subject matter and why Shakespeare used it throughout the play. Ã¢â¬Å"I am no pilot, yet wert thou as far, As that vast shore washed with the farthest sea, I should adventure for such merchandise. Ã¢â¬ The word Ã¢â¬Å"adventureÃ¢â¬ is used here because in the Elizabethan times, international traders were known as Merchant adventurers. It also suggests that Romeo finds his and JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s love very exciting, as adventure is usually associated with new and exciting things. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s use of imagery to convey RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s love as a new found land helps to set a picture in the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s minds of a far off tropical shore. In ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s time there would not have been a lot of back drops and flats setting the stage, so it would be up to the audience to imagine their own scenery, and up to the playwright to use the correct language to stimulate these thoughts. Romeo describes himself being hidden from the eyes of JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s guards and family. Ã¢â¬Å"I have nightÃ¢â¬â¢s cloak to hide me from their eyes. Ã¢â¬ Again Shakespeare is using light and dark to set a scene for the audience. His actors would not have had the electrical lighting actors have now, so he would have to create moods and light by using words. Romeo is telling the audience it is dark, so it is easier to imagine. This contrast is used a lot in the monument scene too. When Romeo hears that Juliet is dead he goes to the tomb where she is said to be. After killing Paris he looks at Juliet for the last time. He describes the days they spent together as Ã¢â¬Å"A lightning before deathÃ¢â¬ , because it was believed in those days that before somebody died, they would seem very well and happy temporarily. This is the contrast between light and dark again, which adds mood to the scene; the audience knows Romeo is deeply saddened by the sudden death of Juliet and, because of this, so are they. The word Ã¢â¬Å"lightningÃ¢â¬ makes you think of lightning as in a quick flash. Their romance was very sudden and over quickly, but very enlightening all the same. Romeo mentions JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s beauty despite her death too, especially concentrating on her lips and cheeks. Ã¢â¬Å"BeautyÃ¢â¬â¢s ensign yet Is crimson in thy lips and in thy cheeksÃ¢â¬ Romeo talks about JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s beauty a lot throughout the play. In the balcony scene he says Ã¢â¬Å"The brightness of her cheek would shame those starsÃ¢â¬ and then proclaims Ã¢â¬Å"O that I were a cheek upon that handÃ¢â¬ . It is interesting how Romeo talks of JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s cheeks so much. Perhaps Shakespeare is trying to link the two scenes together to show that RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s love for Juliet was present from the beginning to the end of their relationship. He still felt the same for her when she was dead as he did when their love was blooming. Ã¢â¬Å"I will raise her statue in pure goldÃ¢â¬ Montague says this of Juliet in the last scene. Gold was a very expensive and prized material to the Elizabethan audience and so proves that Montague means well. It is a bit ironic that he is comparing her to a statue, because in the first scene Romeo and Juliet meet, the banquet scene, he describes her as a holy shrine. It is a very sad moment as the audience are reminded how happy the lovers used to be. The audience really benefits from ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s imagery as it brings the play to life. It makes the words far more beautiful and the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s easier to relate to. Romeo seems more poetic and easier to fall in love with. Juliet appears to be intelligent and loving. Without the imagery the audience would not feel as involved with the plot, and would therefore not sympathise with the characters. The imagery heightens the emotions of the audience and confirms Ã¢â¬Å"Romeo and JulietÃ¢â¬ as one a ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest tragedies.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Truth-in-sentencing debate Learning Team B CJA/204 November 26, 2012 Deana Bohenek Truth-In-Sentencing Debate Opening Argument Truth-in-sentencing laws do not deter crime. The federal truth-in-sentencing law guarantees that certain violent offenders will serve at least 85% of their sentenceÃ (Schmalleger, 2012). However, if the offender acts accordingly in prison, he or she can attain parole for good behavior. What about the victims? Victims do not want to hear this. If an offender is sentenced for 30 years, the victim wants justice and wants to see the full 30 years served.They do not want to see the offender getting released after 25 years. The truth-in-sentencing laws are the judgesÃ¢â¬â¢ guideline when choosing the sentence of the offender. The law is a structured guideline for sentencing the offenders. However, the judge can deviate from the guidelines if there are mitigating and aggravating circumstances. Look at plea bargaining,Ã this is still a possibility even though t here are truth-in-sentencing laws in place. The offender knows that if they get caught, they can plea bargain for a lesser sentence and be back out on the streets sooner.Let me say it again, truth-in-sentencing laws do not deter crime. The offenders know they will get out of prison soon through a plea bargain or parole. They know they can avoid serving the full sentence that the judge imposed on him or her. The only way to deter crime and reduce recidivism is to abolish the possibility of parole and ensure that the sentence the judge renders is carried out to full-term. Obviously, to take away the option for parole would mean that the prison populations would increase. Well, we should take the funds left over from overhead to run the parole division and build more prisons to house these offenders.The longer we keep them off the streets, the safer society will be. Rebuttal Argument Each state has to look at the amount of money being spent to house each inmate they have in custody. Be cause the Truth-In Sentencing Law wants to keep the offender behind bars until they complete their entire sentence/term in prison no matter what the costs are to the public. Meaning, everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s hard earned incomeÃ (taxes) are used to keep them in their present place of occupancy. This law depletes the services we receive from our state revenues.We donÃ¢â¬â¢t have much say in the budget spending but we do see the increase in taxes used for each state program. I have to disagree with the statement made Ã¢â¬Å"The offenders know they will get out of prison sooner through a plea bargain or parole. Ã¢â¬ Ã Not all offenders before or during their trial will know the outcome of sentencing. Many do not have the option for plea bargaining because plea bargaining depends on the severity of the crime committed. Instead, if the case went directly to trial, (this includes judge and jury) the accused might have a chance of plea bargaining.No plea bargaining makes the offender elig ible for a parole based on his or her behavior during incarceration and no plea bargaining being offered. But if society had no parole system, then the correctional system will have to face overcrowding in the institutions. The lack of Rehabilitation for said prisoner would be non-effective because there would be no programs such as work-time credit or good-time credit, which is the main reason why early release would benefit them. With those programs the time served by offenders would be less and would allow the offenders to enter back into society.The fear of re-entry of said offenders are the defense for keeping them locked up. These programs should be used for offenders that have this as a first offense on their record and have shown they can be productive in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Not all inmates are repeat offenders some are just non-violent offenses but carry a great penalty. When I was younger it was a big deal to go to jail because it showed most people that they were a Ã¢ â¬Å"badassÃ¢â¬ , a badge of honor, and should be feared. In my eyes it was a waste of mind, body, and productive individual. Those same individuals found when they came out ithout a trade they were worthless and the only way to survive was crime and more time in jail. In Illinois, Governor Pat Quinn on October 2, 2012 has reinstated the program for Ã¢â¬Å"Good-timeÃ¢â¬ releases,Ã a way to bring down the overcrowding in his state and federal prison system. Opening Argument Truth-in-Sentencing laws deter crime because they ensure that offenders are in prison for at least 85% of their sentence. Therefore, the convicted offenders stay in prison for longer periods and not able to commit additional crimes and endanger the member of society.TIS laws are the assurance of longer prison terms as punishment and serve as an effective deterrent from criminal actions to the serving offender and others who may be considering criminal acts. The laws provide the ability for the criminal just ice system to operate more effectively by lowering violent crimes as well punishing violent criminals. AccordingÃ to the publication fromÃ UniversityÃ of Alabama at Birmingham (2005) citing data from Bureau of Justice Statistics, in the decade following the passage and implementation of the truth-in-sentencing laws in 1994, the arrests for violent crimes were reduced by 16% by the year of 2005.The TIS laws also limit some of the discretion of the judges and parole boards with regard to release of the offenders prematurely and being Ã¢â¬Å"too softÃ¢â¬ on crime, thus eliminating the many possibilities for the offenders getting away without receiving the well-deserved punishment. The Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report from January 1999 indicates that prior to the TIS laws violent offenders barely served half the length of their sentences. What kind of message did that send to the convicted or potential criminals?With the availability of TIS laws, criminal justice adm inistrators can build public confidence by ensuring that the just punishment is served to anyone breaking the law. In the article written by Joanna Shepherd published in the Journal of Law and Economics, she makes this statement: Ã¢â¬Å"Using a country-level data set, empirical results confirm that TIS laws deter violent offenders, increase the probability of arrest, and increase maximum imposed prison sentences. TIS laws decrease murders by 16%, aggravated assaults by 12%, robberies by 24%, rapes by 12%, and larcenies by 3%Ã¢â¬ (Shepherd,Ã 2002,Ã p. 09). Today, more states are implementing the TIS laws and abolishing parole and indeterminate sentencing, demonstrating that the state legislature believes in this uniform application of justice processes and effectiveness of these laws in crime prevention. This information clearly shows that TIS laws are very effective in deterring crime by ensuring the stern and just punishment for offenders and sending the clear message to pot ential criminals that criminal behavior will be punished by lengthy imprisonment. Rebuttal ArgumentWhat about crime being committed in prisons around the world? Are we just going to ignore that fact because victimization is still happening across the boards of federal and state prisons? According toÃ a writer of TheÃ New Yorker, Adam Gopnik, darkly described America prisons as Ã¢â¬Å"the moral scandal of America life. Prison rape is so endemic- more than seventy thousand prisoners are raped each year. Ã¢â¬ That is routinely held out as a threat, part of punishment to be expected. Ã¢â¬ (Gopnik, 2012). The National inmate survey reported that Ã¢â¬Å"An estimated 4. 4% of prison inmates and 3. % of jail inmates reported experiencing one or more incidents of victimization by another inmate or facility staff since admission to the facilityÃ (Beck & Harrison, 2010). The total federal and state population in 2010 was 1,605,127, while the total jail population in 2009 was 767,62 0. This implies that there were over 94,000 victims subject to multiple violations (Beck & Harrison, 2010). No I don't agree with the fact that offenders being incapacitated for longer periods of time don't commit another crime. For people who want to do so, they will commit crimes anyway, and largely at that.Especially, the incentive behind good time credit is to have offenders behave in prison. If you lock them up in less than ideal conditions with no incentive to behave appropriately while incarcerated, they will be a population difficulty to control because they have nothing to lose. Earning good time credit gives them an insight to behave well inside. As for truth-in sentencing laws, I don't know if IÃ would actually say it is a deterrent or at least how much of a deterrent itÃ is, but I think it isÃ important nonetheless. Prior to 2003, legislation allowed for automatic emission of every sentence imposed to be reduced by one third (Chong, 2008). If the offender was made eligible for parole, a portion of that sentence is served under supervision in the community to enable their reintegrationÃ into the community when released (Chong, 2008). Legislation introduced in 2003 abolished the automatic remission provision, so the sentenceÃ imposed would more truly reflect the time to be served. In its place, legislation required courts to adjust the sentence actually imposed by one third, to reflect the abolition of automatic remission (Chong, 2008).What the government has done isÃ replaceÃ automatic remission with reduction of sentence (Chong, 2008). The more things change, the more they remain the same. Sentences are more or less durationÃ for the same type of offenses (Chong, 2008). Some say the money being used for these criminals sitting inÃ jail should be more valuable of utilizing for workÃ time credits and more programsÃ for educational, substance abuse, psychiatric help programs for these offenders before being released out into the world again.I think it will better prepare themselves rather than not knowing what to do and all they are use to is theÃ jail's way of life in which they will end up backÃ in having that kind of mind set. References Beck, A. J. , & Harrison, P. M. (2010, August). Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates, 2008-09. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Retrieved from http://bjs. ojp. usdoj. gov/content/pub/press/svpjri0809pr. cfm Chong, P. (2008, June 19). The Truth about Ã¢â¬ËTruth in Sentencing'. WAtoday. Retrieved from http://blogs. watoday. com. u/theverdict/2008/06/the_truth_about. html Ditton, P. M. , & Wilson, D. J. (1999, January). Truth in Sentencing in State Prisons. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report,Ã (NCJ 170032). RetrievedÃ fromÃ http://bjsdata. ojp. usdoj. gov/content/pub/pdf/tssp. pdf Gopnik, A. (2012, January 30). The Caging of America. The New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www. newyorker. com/arts/critics/atlarge/2012/01/30/12030crat _atlarge_gopnik Schmalleger, F. (2012). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century, 11th ed. Upper Saddle River: NJ. Shepherd, J. M. (2002,
Sunday, September 15, 2019
1.0 Introduction A business that seeks to operate honestly, considers people and the environment when making business decisions, and tries to make a positive contribution to the local community and to wider society Berjaya Corporation Berhad is an investment holding company and is engaged in the provision of management services. Berjaya Corporation group of companies is founded by Tan Sri DatoÃ¢â¬â¢ Seri Vincent Tan Chee Yioun when he acquired a major controlling stake Berjaya Industrial Berhad in the year of 1984. It is originally known as Berjaya Kawat Berhad and now known as Reka Pacifiic Berhad. In October 1988, Berjaya Group became the holding company of Reka Pacific Berhad. The principal activities of the subsidiaries consist of Consumer Marketing, Direct Selling & Retail; Financial Services; Hotels, Resorts, Vacation Timeshare & Recreation Development; Property Investment and Development; Gaming & Lottery Management; Development of Sanitary Landfill, Environvental Services and clean Technology Investment; Food & Beverage; and Investment Holding (appendix 1). Hence, due to their strategies structure, it has made them successful until today. At Berjaya Corporation group of companies, they believe that being a social responsible company can bring a balance between profitability and communities they operate. Due to their business, Berjaya companies almost in touch with society daily needs. Therefore, Berjaya always encourage their staff to take part in the GroupÃ¢â¬â¢s Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities. Over the years, Berjaya Corporation had planned many charity projects, fund-raising events and donations as a social commitment towards the society. 2.0 Current Practices 2.1 Community To curb the escalation of strays in Malaysia, Berjaya Corporation Berhad organized a charity concert and conducted by Berjaya Youth to raise fundsÃ for the approximately RM115,000 for the sterilization of 1,000 rescued animals. Besides that, Berjaya Youth had collaborated with Paws Animal Welfare Society (PAWS) to launch its Mobile Animal Clinic at Berjaya Times Square (appendix 2). Better Malaysia Foundation, Tan Sri DatoÃ¢â¬â¢ Seri Vincent Tan Ã¢â¬Ës personal foundation, had donated the mobile animal clinic that worth RM220,000 to create awareness on the importance of spaying and neutering of animals to curb the escalation of strays in Malaysia. The mobile animal clinic features a well-equipped examination room that can administer vaccination and perform sterilization on animals safely. Besides that, Berjaya Corporation has partnered with PAWS Animal Welfare Society to build a cattery building that can provide space for 300 cats. This cattery is to improve the living conditions of homeless cat till they get adopted. With this cattery, Berjaya Corporation want to create awareness for people to adopt a cat instead of buying. This is a good news for PAWS as PAWS is shortage of space and limited funds to take care those abandoned cats and dogs (appendix 3). Disabilities are always one of the groups that need community to give support. On 14 June 2014, Berjaya Corporation Berhad donated RM200, 000 to the Life Prostheses Centre (Ã¢â¬Å"LFLÃ¢â¬ ) located in the Bandar Utama Buddhist SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s building in Petaling Jaya, Selangor. The centre is the first and only prostheses workshop in Malaysia that provide free prosthetic limbs to poor and less fortunate Malaysia (appendix 4). However, the cost of making a limbs is not cheap, each cost estimated between RM3, 000 to RM5, 000. With the contribution of RM200,000 , it will enable the centre to get 40 to 70 prosthetic limbs depending on the type and level of amputation. Next, Berjaya Cares Foundation contributed 10 units of dialysis machines worth RM450,000 to the National Kidney Foundation of Malaysia (appendix 5). Since the establishment of this foundation, Berjaya Corporation have never failed to support them, Berjaya Corporation Berhad has raised funds for National Kidney Foundation through annual Kenny Roasters Chicken Run eventÃ for 2 years and through donation boxes placed in 7-Eleven outlets. Last year, they get to set up a one-stop information hub for all matters related to kidney and kidney care. 2.2 Employees Employees of Berjaya Corporation had their priority in the company. Berjaya Corporation always give their employees good quality in their workplace to make sure their employees can focus in their career development. Besides that, employees are constantly encouraged to participate in training and development programmes which relevant to their job field, so they can improve their productivity and develop skill sets. Moreover, Berjaya Cares Foundation regularly organizes talk about health, safety awareness and other topics such as personal development to their staff (appendix 6), while the Sports Toto Fitness Centre with full completed gymnasium equipment and facilities is set up to encourage their staff to exercise regularly and maintain a healthy lifestyle. Besides that, Berjaya Cares Foundation had set up a Staff Welfare Fund to manage and supplement financial aid to their employees and their family member whenever they need help in illness, natural disaster and death. This is a very good benefit to become their staff. 2.3 Environment A group of 17 Sports Toto volunteers went to Kuala Selangor Nature Park to plant mangrove trees. Mangrove trees are very good in carbon absorption and act as natural flood retention Ã¢â¬Å"spongeÃ¢â¬ to hold heavy rainfall which can prevent flood. Next, Mangrove trees help to hold sediments along riverbanks to safeguard coastline erosion and reduce pollution to coral reefs and marine life and also provide breeding and nursery grounds. They had planted 100 mangrove saplings (appendix 7). Other than Sports Toto, Berjaya Hotel & Resorts conducted a project of threeÃ day Tioman Island Clean-Up Day with over 100 participants including staff, media and children from Sekolah Kebangsaan Tekek, Tioman. This activity can educate people about the importance of coral reefs to the ecosystems. There are a total of 121 reef-destroying Crown of Thorns were removed during the dive clean-up (appendix 8). They also clean up the beach with given handheld plastic bags. The result of cleaning up the beach is 15 bags of discarded plastic litters, paper wastes, beverage cans and bottles that weighing over 300kg. 2.4 Sports Toto In Malaysia, gambling is illegal as Malaysia is a Muslim country and majority of the population is Muslim. However, Berjaya Corporation Berhad insists of starting up the gambling business to the country and it is known as Sports Toto. Sports Toto Malaysia was incorporated by Malaysia Government in 1969. Then it is privatized in 1985. Today, Sports Toto is owned subsidiary of Berjaya Sports Toto Berhad and listed on the main market of Bursa Malaysia. Sports Toto is a zero sum game that accumulates the money and distributes to the winners and at the same time, gain profit from it. When people are winning the game, there will always a lot of losers. There are losers more than winners. 2.5 Conflict of the Board As we know, the current chairman and Chief Executive Officer (Ã¢â¬Å"CEOÃ¢â¬ ) of Berjaya Corporation is DatoÃ¢â¬â¢ Robin Tan Yeong Ching, the eldest son of Tan Sri DatoÃ¢â¬â¢ Seri Vincent Tan Chee Yioun. Tan Sri DatoÃ¢â¬â¢ Seri Vincent Tan Chee Yioun was the previous chairman and CEO of Berjaya Corporation and now he is the major shareholder of Berjaya Corporation. DatoÃ¢â¬â¢ Robin Tan Yeong Ching was later appointed as the Chief Executive Officer (Ã¢â¬Å"CEOÃ¢â¬ ) of the Company on 1 January 2011 and subsequently as the Chairman/CEO of the Company on 23 February 2012. CEO and Chairman shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be the same person because this will be conflict. 3.0 Rank about the company 3.1 Employees Employee is the most concern for Berjaya Corporate Berhad because employees are companyÃ¢â¬â¢s best asset. As Boudreau and Ramstad (2007) present: Ã¢â¬Å"Whether it is called Ã¢â¬Å"people,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"labor,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"intellectual capital,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"human capital,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"human resources,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"talent,Ã¢â¬ or some other term, there source that lies within employees and how they are organized is increasingly recognized as critical to strategic success and competitive advantage. Without employees, Berjaya Corporate could not be success like today. Berjaya Corporation Berhad is the Top 30 Best Companies to work in Malaysia and today Berjaya Corporation Berhad has a total of 17,000 employees strength. Berjaya Corporation has various industries such as food and beverage, automotive, hotel and resorts and more. Hence, employee takes an important role in the company as they are backbone of the company and they are the one who services the customers. Therefore, company need to treat their employee nicely as the way you treat your employees is the way they will treat your customers (Branson, 2014). According to the Maslow Hierarchy Needs (Abraham Maslow, 1943), there are five categories of human needs such as basic needs, safety needs, belonging needs, esteem and self-actualization needs. These five needs separated to high and low categories. However, company should try to fulfill the low needs for their employee. Although is not a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s responsible to fulfill all the employees needs, employees will become loyalty to the company once the company can fulfill their needs. Employees who The hierarchy of needs theory is relevant to this study as the theory is applicable to organizational orientation and employee motivation (Greenberg & Baron, 2003). First of all, employees work to fulfill their basic needs in their life. They will only work for company when there are reasonable salary amount for them. Thus, Berjaya Corporation will give their employee bonus, incentive and even lucky draw during Berjaya FounderÃ¢â¬â¢s Day. Next, safety needs is a very important need towards the employees especiallyÃ for some job that will take risk. Berjaya Corporation had always conduct healthy talk or body check to their employees, so they know how to take care their body. Other than that, belonging needs is very important to an employee. Employee who feels they belong to the company, they usually will put a great deal of effort into their daily tasks. 3.2 Community Community is the second concern of Berjaya Corporation, they have planned many charity events and donations towards the community. Every year, they will have an event called as Berjaya FounderÃ¢â¬â¢s Day. Berjaya FounderÃ¢â¬â¢s Day is an annual affair dedicated to give back to society. This day, they will rise up a fund from the efforts of staff and sponsor form banker, suppliers and friends of Berjaya. The first Berjaya FounderÃ¢â¬â¢s Day was conducted on 26 February 2011 and get RM6.6 million donations for 30 beneficiaries. Next, the second Berjaya FounderÃ¢â¬â¢s Day get a total amount of RM11.6 million for 61 charitable organizations. The third Berjaya FounderÃ¢â¬â¢s Day on 23 February 2013 contributed RM20.2 million to 74 charitable organizations, while the latest Berjaya FounderÃ¢â¬â¢s Day on 22 February 2014 has collected RM25.6 million to 90 charitable organizations. From above, we can see that every year of the amount and number of charitable organization are increasing. This shows that nowadays society a lot of people need help from a big company like Berjaya Corporation come out to support them. These charitable organizations include those that support community, education, heath causes, international humanitarian aid, local performing arts as well as environmental awareness and animal causes. According to instrumental theories from Garriga and MeleÃ¢â¬â¢s (2004), Berjaya Corporation is focusing on achieving economic objectives through social activities. Through social activities, this can maximize shareholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ value and is a strategy for competitive advantage. Times have changed. There are more than 8,000 companies around the world use corporation social responsibility in their business. Because corporate social responsible is a way for companies to benefit them while alsoÃ benefitting the society. It is a win-win situation. According to a data released by Net Impact, the nonprofit that aims to help businesses promote sustainability, 65% of MBAs surveyed say they want to make a social or environmental difference through their jobs (Knowledge@Wharton, 2014). When a big company can give back to the community, it will be the most inspiring parts of corporate life. It shows that the company takes care of the society and it is an ethical company. This helps company to get good reputation from the society. 3.3 Environment Environment is the third concern of Berjaya Corporation. Berjaya Corporation is a diversified company that will initially influence the environment from their projects. When they are starting up a factory in a rural area, Berjaya Corporation will have to go through the process of deforestation. Cutting off the trees will definitely given a negative impact to the environment such as landslide due to the destroyed on the existing mechanical root structure in the area. However, as an ethical business, Berjaya Corporation will take up the responsibility to improve the environment by organizing an awareness event. For instance, mangrove trees planting for environmental conservation were held on 19 April 2011 with the group of Toto Sports volunteer in Kuala Selangor. Total of 100 mangrove trees are planted. The resource of our planet is limited and unsustainability is stated in the theory of Environmental Ethics (Paul W. Taylor, 1986). Moreover, Berjaya Corporation has also incorporated Ã¢â¬Å"Go GreenÃ¢â¬ program in their business to avoid wastage and spread the awareness towards their customer. For example, use green products for take away food and beverage such as Starbucks Reusable Tumbler and Kenny Rogers Roasters I-Care Box. This shows how Berjaya Corporation cares about the environment. In addition, Berjaya Corporation chooses to cooperate with local suppliers to use less paper work and also give business to them. In addition, Berjaya Corporation ships their products by sea rather than airfeirght. 3.4 Sports Toto Sports Toto is a subsidiaries company of Berjaya Corporation. Sports Toto is very popular among Malaysian and it is the largest number of forecast operator in Malaysia as it has more than 670 outlets in Malaysia. Over the years, Sports Toto has been made many corporate social responsible such as charity, community sports, education and cultural promotion. It is a responsible corporate citizen but also a unhealthy games for Malaysia especially Malaysia is a Muslim country. It is unfair when only the Chinese and Indian can buy Toto tickets while the Malay is not allow to purchase. Malaysian called it Ã¢â¬Å"buy a hopeÃ¢â¬ when they place their bets. Therefore, everyday there are a lot of Malaysian spend money on buying toto tickets. Some of them even use their money like water to purchase to try to win the grand prize. But Sports Toto is the only one that Ã¢â¬Å"winning bigÃ¢â¬ . However, people with little money are always attracted to buy because it gives them the feeling of winning and the amount of the prizes is too great for them. In summary, gaming industry is harmful for individuals and society. However, it is the greatest happiness for the greatest number, stated by the utilitarianism theory of Jeremy Bentham (1987) . Jeremy Bentham said that it does not matter on the action but the result. If the result happens to be good and not harmful to others, it is consider as ethical. Therefore, the Sports TOTO game do helps on certain people on their financial issue. Sports TOTO creates hope for people to continue survive without financial difficulties. 3.5 Conflict of the Board In Berjaya Corporation, the CEO and Chairman seat is taken by the same person who is DatoÃ¢â¬â¢ Robin Tan. It is unethical to do so because it shows no fairness towards the employee. This is egoism ethical because they only hand over the position towards to their family instead outsiders. Chairman and CEO have different roles in the company, if this two roles combined together will creates an inherent conflict of interest. The Chairman of the Board of a company is the chief representative of the shareholders. The CEO of the company is the leader of the managers. The job of the chairman is to look after the shareholders. His main job is to fire the incompetent managers that are not qualified or control ones that overreach. Chairman should also look for workers that are potential enough to help company earn profit. While the CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s job is to manage, report to the board that set the policies and priorities based on the shareholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ wished and needs such as higher income, high reward policy or bonus. Besides that, he should look out for the interests, salary or extra allowance of managers. If chairman was the same person, he will basically reporting to himself. This shows that Chairman and CEO had two different and conflicting roles. Where this might bring conflict of interest arises. 4.0 Recommendation Berjaya Corporation Berhad should encourage more green activities instead of replanting the trees or cleaning the beach. They should conduct green activities in all of his company and Subsidiaries Company together as this will be effective towards the society. They can also gather different ideas and save up unnecessary costs. It can also bring a good image to their employees or other company will follow their steps. Besides that, Sports Toto should stop convince consumers that buying toto tickets is a good habit through advertisement, this may lead people to spend a lot of money on toto tickets and end up becoming poor. Next, Berjaya Corporation should allow every employees to attend the health talk, not only the small amount because this may causes employee feel unfair and do not feel they belong to the company. Lastly, Berjaya Corporation should get two people to in charge position of CEO and also chairman as this two positions will have conflict if taken by the same person. 5.0 Conclusion Berjaya Corporation Berhad is very good in their CSR which makes them different from other company. CSR can also bring benefits in terms of risk management to company such as cost savings, access to capital, customer relationships, human resource management, and innovation capacity. CSR can also make company outstanding compare to company that did not do CSR. According to the European Commission, company with more responsible business can foster more growth. Hence, CSR is very important for a company especially public listed company like Berjaya Corporation. However, Berjaya Corporation not to only focus on CSR but also take care of their primary stakeholders such as shareholder and customer by fulfill their needs and wants. 6.0 Reference Bentham, J. (1987). An introduction to the principles of morals and legislation. In J. S. Mill and J. Bentham, Utilitarianism and Other Essays,Harmandsworth: Penguin. Berjaya.com, (2014). Berjaya Corporation Berhad. [online] Available at: http://www.berjaya.com/corporate-profile.html [Accessed 29 Nov. 2014]. BOUDREAU, J. W. Ã¢â¬â RAMSTAD, P. M.: Beyond HR. Boston. Harvard Business School Press, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4221-0415-6 Branson, R. (2014). The way you treat your employeesÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬â Virgin.com. [online] Virgin.com. Available at: http://www.virgin.com/richard-branson/the-way-you-treat-your-employees [Accessed 28 Nov. 2014]. Fisher, J. (2004) Social Responsibility and Ethics: Clarifying the Concepts, Journal of Business Ethics 52: 391-400. Greenberg, J., and Baron, R. A.( 2003). Behavior in Organizations: Understanding and Managing the Human Side of Work.Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Knowledge@Wharton, (2014). From Fringe to Mainstream: Companies Integrate CSR Initiatives into Everyday Business Ã¢â¬â Knowledge@Wharton. [online] Available at: http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/from-fringe-to-mainstream-companies-integrate-csr-initiatives-into-everyday-business/ [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014]. Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and Personality: NY: Harper Taylor, Paul W. (2010). Ã¢â¬Å"Egalitarian BiocentrismÃ¢â¬ . In Keller, David R. Environmental Ethics: The Big Questions. John Wiley & Sons. 7.0 Appendix Appendix 1: Berjaya Corporate Structure Appendix 2: Animal Mobile Clinic Appendix 3: New home for homeless cat Appendix 4: Free prosthetic limbs to poor Appendix 5: Donate 10 units of dialysis machines to the National Kidney Foundation of Malaysia Appendix 6: Health talk to employees Appendix 7: Sports Toto volunteers plant mangrove trees Appendix 8: Tioman Island Clean-Up Day