Wednesday, November 27, 2019
In this essay on societal categories in Britain I will largely concentrate on construction of assorted categories in Britain and dealingss between them. I will besides depict some alterations and motions which this classes went through over the old ages. Furthermore. I will set accent on todayÃ¢â¬â¢s of import issue in Britain. the job of category battle i. e. disparity between the rich and the hapless. Although there are assorted definitions of societal category. we may state that societal category is connected with factors such as wealth. degree of instruction and business. To be more precise in specifying it. a societal category is Ã¢â¬Å"a position hierarchy in which persons and groups are classified on the footing of regard and prestigiousness acquired chiefly through economic success and accretion of wealth. Social category may besides mention to any peculiar degree in such a hierarchy. Ã¢â¬ [ 1 ] Social categories represent an of import portion in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives because they are indispensable to proper apprehension of British history and because category is a major British preoccupation. We will write a custom essay sample on Social Classes in Britain Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page particularly in political life. Therefore. it concerned British Prime Minister John Major twenty old ages ago in such a manner that he tried to accomplish his purpose to convey about Ã¢â¬Å"classless societyÃ¢â¬ . He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t accomplish that and Britain continued to be class-bound state. [ 2 ] Class is really much nowadays in Britain. Besides him. harmonizing to Margater Thatcher: Ã¢â¬Å"Class. Ã¢â¬ she insisted. Ã¢â¬Å"is a Communist construct. It groups people as packages. and sets them against one another. Ã¢â¬ [ 3 ] We may reason that to her. category has been corruption of human behavior. Today there are six societal categories in Britain established in the 1950s and used of all time since. [ 4 ] Following categorization based on the business of the caput of the family harmonizing to National Readership Survey [ 5 ] is for 2008. The upper in-between category ( class A Ã¢â¬â high managerial. administrative or professional. 4 % ) in Britain is really little and consists largely of baronage. aristocracy and familial landholders. This category is more defined by household background than by occupation or income because these people were born into households that possessed higher incomes. In other words. it represents the wealthiest category with people holding inherited money and place. The in-between category ( class B Ã¢â¬â intermediate managerial. administrative or professional. 23 % ) in Britain consists of people who are educated in either private or province schools. Typical occupations include attorneies. physicians. designers. instructors. directors. every b it good as civil retainers and other skilled occupations. The lower in-between category ( category C1 Ã¢â¬â supervisory. clerical and junior managerial. administrative or professional. 29 % ) in Britain consists of people in white-collar occupations ( do non affect manual labour ) life in less comfortable suburbs. For illustration. they are employed as retail salesmen. railroad guards. air hose air hostesss. travel agents. low degree civil retainers etc. Members of this category frequently did non hold an university instruction until 1970s enlargement in higher instruction. The skilled on the job category ( category C2 Ã¢â¬â skilled manual workers. 21 % ) consists of people who work in skilled blue-collar occupations ( frequently involve manual labour ) . chiefly in the building and fabrication industry or as self employed contractors. The semi-skilled and unskilled working category ( category D Ã¢â¬â semi and unskilled manual workers. 15 % ) in Britain consists of people who work in blue-collar occupations with low incomes. What is typical for this category is that people do non hold chance to take portion in higher instruction. Many would travel on to work semi-skilled and unskilled occupations on the assembly lines and machine stores of BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s major auto mills. steel Millss. metalworkss and fabric Millss in the extremely industrialized metropoliss. Category E ( province pensionaries. insouciant or lowest grade workers. unemployed with province benefits merely. 8 % ) . known as the Ã¢â¬Å"underclassÃ¢â¬ consists of the long-run unemployed. occasional part-time. economic immigrants. aged pensionaries and dependant on province benefits. Many would be in public lodging or council estates. [ 6 ] While the fact that people largely mix socially with other people from the same category and milieus gives the incorrect feeling of invariable state of affairs. there has ever been major motion between categories. This motion is a effect of the fact that people move from one societal category to another during working lives. [ 7 ] Some even try to acquire into another. more flush category. through matrimony or in some other manner. Ã¢â¬Å"Marriage outside oneÃ¢â¬â¢s category is much more common than it used to be. Consequently. the Ã¢â¬ËextendedÃ¢â¬â¢ household. including cousins. will likely include people who in their societal life belong to quite different societal categories. Ã¢â¬ [ 8 ] For illustration. during the Victorian epoch. when societal category became a national compulsion. industrialists in the House of Commons tried to achieve the position of House of Lords landholders through civilization. matrimony and rubric. [ 9 ] After the Vicorian epoch. things started to alter. Ã¢â¬Å"The working category is quickly worsening. In 1911 three out every four employed or freelance people were manual workers. By 1950 that proportion had fallen to two out of three. but since so has fallen to 40 per cent or so. Ã¢â¬ [ 10 ] Changes besides occurred after the Second World War. Ã¢â¬Å"BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s category construction loosened after the Second World War. The landed nobility became comparatively poorer. the figure of people in manual work decreased and the 1944 Education Act opened universities to more kids whose parents could non afford private educationÃ¢â¬ . [ 11 ] Ã¢â¬Å"From a sociological point of position the category system in Britain changed well during the Ã¢â¬ËThatcher EraÃ¢â¬â¢ . Home ownership ( on mortgage ) was extended throughout the in-between categories and below. With the loss of the bulk of traditional working category industrial occupations from the market. a new Ã¢â¬ËunderclassÃ¢â¬â¢ . below working category emerged. The Ã¢â¬ËunderclassÃ¢â¬â¢ . defined as unemployed trusting on province benefits. is the new underside of the British category system. Ã¢â¬ [ 12 ] Ã¢â¬Å"Since the 1950s there has been a monolithic growing of the in-between category. But there has besides been the outgrowth of a ample Ã¢â¬Ëunderclass Ã¢â¬â¢ . as class E is normally known. Ã¢â¬ [ 13 ] As opposite. in the 1990s. harmonizing to Andrew Adonis and Stephen Pollard there have been discovered a new upper in-between category described as Ã¢â¬Ëthe ace classÃ¢â¬â¢ . which consisted of elect professionals and directors. which held high wages and portion ownership. [ 14 ] Because of such state of affairs. caused by the fact that the in-between category is nomadic and fluid. there has been important alteration in per centums of families since 1992. As the in-between category is spread outing. per centums of classs A. B and C1 have increased. and per centums of classs C2. D and E have decreased. Ã¢â¬Å"The in-between category. in peculiar. has great fluidness and mobility. Ã¢â¬ ¦ Over half of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s in-between category started life in the on the job category. Ã¢â¬ [ 15 ] But troubles arise when Ã¢â¬Å"despite this fluidness. the elite of society. itself a section of the professional category. takes great attention to protect itself. This includes the Ã¢â¬Ëgent ryÃ¢â¬â¢ category made up chiefly of landholders. and others who move in the most sole English societal circles. Ã¢â¬ [ 16 ] Therefore. societal categories with a great trade of power are normally viewed as Ã¢â¬Ëthe elitesÃ¢â¬â¢ within their ain societies. I think the job consists of that societal categories with greater power effort to procure themselves by segregate in Ã¢â¬Ëclosed circleÃ¢â¬â¢ above the lower categories in the hierarchy but at the disbursal of the society overall. In that manner. the category differentiation between the powerful and the powerless is more emphatic. Thus we come to a really of import issue of the category struggle or the category battle which is manifested in wealth spread between the rich and the hapless in Britain. Ã¢â¬Å"The category battle takes assorted signifiers. The bulk of category battles today are over Ã¢â¬Ëeconomic issuesÃ¢â¬â¢ . including an increasing portion of national income. Ã¢â¬ [ 17 ] Ã¢â¬Å"The classical reading of category battle today is between the capitalist ( or having ) category and the labor ( or working ) category. Ã¢â¬ [ 18 ] One of the most powerful sociological accounts of societal struggle is that of Karl Marx. who posited a category battle between labor and middle class intrinsic to capitalist. industrial society. Ã¢â¬Å"Here is Karl Marx: Ã¢â¬ËThe history of all hitherto bing society is the history of category strugglesÃ¢â¬ . [ 19 ] For Marx. category was the kernel of history an d of human behaviour and for Thatcher. as stated above. category has been the corruption of both. Ã¢â¬Å"Class may non be the kernel of history in the manner that the Marxists and public assistance province progressives one time believed. But neither is it the perversion of history that Margaret Thatcher claims. Taking a long and wide position. alterations in popular perceptual experiences of British society have been at least every bit of import as alterations in British society itself. and it is in the germinating relationship between these societal perceptual experiences and societal constructions that the history of category is decently to be found and to be studied. Ã¢â¬ [ 20 ] Throughout the last three centuries of BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s history. there has been much less grounds of category consciousness and category struggle than Marx erroneously asserted. Furthermore. it is an sarcasm that. long before John Major made the phrase stylish during the 1990s. Marx had predicted that a Ã¢â¬Ëclassless societyÃ¢â¬â¢ would one twenty-four hours come into being. [ 21 ] Ã¢â¬Å"Finally. the division between categories will widen and the status of the exploited worker will deteriorate so severely that societal construction prostrations: the category battle is transformed into a proletarian revol ution. The workersÃ¢â¬â¢ victory will extinguish the footing of category division in belongings through public ownership of the agencies of production. With the footing of categories therefore wiped off. a egalitarian society will result ( by definition ) . and since political power to protect the middle class against the workers is unneeded. political authorization and the province will shrivel off. Ã¢â¬ [ 22 ] But despite everything said. the category system in British society is alive and good and. hence. the job of category struggle is still present. Unfortunately. the spread between the rich and the hapless in Britain has about reached a record degree. Ã¢â¬Å"It is besides true that the Ã¢â¬ËtopÃ¢â¬â¢ 1 per cent has tremendous influence and control. Ã¢â¬ ¦ The top 1 per cent of wealth holders likely own about one-fourth of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth. a big bead from the two-thirds they controlled in 1914 but a larger proportion than one might anticipate in a modern democracy. Ã¢â¬Å" [ 23 ] It is rather distressing information that such disproportion and inequality exist in Britain. but unluckily the really rich merely go on acquiring richer. Ã¢â¬Å"The latest study by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation confirmed once more what we already know about the turning spread between rich and hapless. It says that it is now greater than it has been for the last 40 old ages. There has been an addition in the figure they define as Ã¢â¬Ëbreadline poorÃ¢â¬â¢ to around a one-fourth of all families. Ã¢â¬ [ 24 ] Ã¢â¬Å"By contrast the wealth of the richest in society has immensely increased. This yearÃ¢â¬â¢s Sunday Times Ã¢â¬Ërich listÃ¢â¬â¢ shows that the addition in wealth of the top 1. 000 people in Britain has been 20 % in one twelvemonth to around ?360 billion. You have to hold ?70 million merely to acquire on the bottom round of that list. Ã¢â¬ [ 25 ] That sort of informations surely tell us that the spread is excessively broad and that something must be done to contract it down. I think some of the best ways to make it are: the demand for increased revenue enhancements on the super rich. equal chances ( e. g. abolition of the public school sector ) . more equal redistribution of the wealth. the transnational companies owned by the rich demand to go publically owned etc. But this would non stop the huge inequalities in British society. nor work out jobs such as category struggle because unluckily. inequality is built into the system. Merely as Dennis Gilbert asserted: Ã¢â¬Å"Class is bound to be in any complex society as non all businesss are equal and tha t families do organize form of interaction that give rise to societal categories. Ã¢â¬ [ 26 ] To reason. obviously societal categories affects everyone and they are decidedly relevant. as has been proven through history of Britain. When the upper category give up from insulating itself from other categories and when rich people quit mundane Ã¢â¬Ërat raceÃ¢â¬â¢ to better or keep their place in societal life. possibly so will Britain make beginnings of conditions for a genuinely classless society. Although. harmonizing to per centums from NRS. there have been some betterment. there is still present really broad spread between the rich and the hapless and likely will hold existed for some clip. Hence Britain must set all its attempt into contracting the wealth spread and stamp downing category battle because Ã¢â¬Å"classes do non be because there is a struggle ; the struggle exists because there are categories and it is easy for the strong to work the weak. The category domination is in economic favoritism and non in the colour of your tegument or your gender. To take the si de of the hapless or the rich is to take against the other. the oppressed against the oppressors. one category against the other. Ã¢â¬ [ 27 ] Bibliography 1. ) Business Dictionary. Social Class: Definition. 2010. 24 June 2011. 2. ) David Cannadine. The Rise and Fall of Class in Britain. 2010. 24 June2011. 3. ) Social class. A Categorization Tool. 2009. Ipsos MediaCT. 24 June 2011.4. ) McDowall. D. ( 2000. ) . Britain in close-up. London: Longman 5. ) James Petras. Capitalism and Class Struggle. 25 April 2011. 24 June 2011. 6. ) The Latter Rain Page. Class Struggle. 2009. 25 June 2011. 7. ) R. J. Rimmel. Marxism. Class Conflict and the Conflict Helix. 2010. 26 June 2011. 8. ) Socialist Party. Social Class in Britain Today. 30 August 2007. 26 June 2011. lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www. socialistparty. org. uk/articles/3075 gt ; 9. ) Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Social Structure of the United Kingdom. 18 June 2011. 26 June 2011. 10. ) Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Social Class: United Kingdom. 20 June 2011. 26 June 2011. lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Social_class # United_Kingdom gt ; 11. ) Andy McSmith. The Large Question: Has the Divide Between BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s Social Classes Really Narrowed? . 4 November 2008. The Independent. 26 June 2011.hypertext transfer protocol: //www. independent. co. uk/news/uk/home-news/the-big-question-has-the-divide-between-britains-social-classes-really-narrowed. hypertext markup language gt ; Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â[ 1 ] Business Dictionary. Social Class: Definition. 2010[ 2 ] McDowall D. . 2000. . p. 93.[ 3 ] Cannadine D. The Rise and Fall of Class in Britain. 2010[ 4 ] McDowall D. . 2000. . p. 93.[ 5 ] Social class. A Categorization Tool. 2009[ 6 ] Social construction of the United Kingdom. 18 June 2011[ 7 ] McDowall D. . 2000. . p. 93.[ 8 ] McDowall D. . 2000. . p. 93.[ 9 ] Social Class: United Kingdom. 20 June 2011[ 10 ] McDowall D. . 2000. . p. 93.[ 11 ] McSmith A. The large inquiry: Has the divide between BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s societal categories truly narrowed? . 4 Nov 2008 [ 12 ] Social Class: United Kingdom. 20 June 2011[ 13 ] McDowall D. . 2000. . p. 93.[ 14 ] Social Class: United Kingdom. 20 June 2011[ 15 ] McDowall D. . 2000. . p. 93.[ 16 ] McDowall D. . 2000. . p. 93.[ 17 ] Petras J. Capitalism and Class Struggle. 25 April 2011[ 18 ] The Latter Rain Page. Class Struggle. 2009[ 19 ] Cannadine D. The Rise and Fall of Class in Britain. 2010 [ 20 ] Cannadine D. The Rise and Fall of Class in Britain. 2010 [ 21 ] Cannadine D. The Rise and Fall of Class in Britain. 2010 [ 22 ] R. J. Rimmel. Marxism. Class Conflict and the Conflict Helix. 2010 [ 23 ] McDowall D. . 2000. . p. 95. [ 24 ] Socialist Party. Social Class in Britain Today. 30 August 2007 [ 25 ] Socialist Party. Social Class in Britain Today. 30 August 2007 [ 26 ] Social Class: United Kingdom. 20 June 2011[ 27 ] The Latter Rain Page. Class Struggle. 2009
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Logistics Issues Facing Both Easyjet and Ryanair Free Online Research Papers 1. INTRODUCTION After the deregulation of the airline industry in Europe which became fully effective in April 1997, one of the main and most interesting aspects of the free market has been the entry in the industry of Low Cost Airlines (LCA). Taking their business model from American air carrier Southwest, Ryanair and its Luton-based rival EasyJet are by far the largest low cost airlines in Europe. Even though the two firms have slightly different strategies the competition between them is extremely intense. This paper will be made up of three parts: first a general description will present some interesting figures of both companies EasyJet and Ryanair followed by a more accurate explanation of their strategies and eventually logistics issues will be discussed. 2. BUSINESS DESCRIPTION LCA fly to short-haul destinations and use only one or two types of aircraft. Most competitors have chosen the Boeing 737 to have large flexibility, fewer stand-by crews, and lower training and maintenance costs (Cranfield University Report, 2000). 2.1 Fleet Headquartered in Luton, UK, EasyJet is one of the leading low fare airlines in the European airline market, with a fleet of 122 aircrafts in 2006 from which 35 are Boeing 737 and 87 are Airbus A319s (see Appendix, Table 1).The age average of the aircrafts being 2.2 years. Meanwhile RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s fleet is made of 120 Boeing 737 with a capacity of 189 passengers each. 2.2 Employees On the 30th of September 2006, EasyJet employed 4,859 people. Among them were cabin crew, pilots, baggage handling agents and others. Meanwhile, Ryanair employed 3,453 people. 2.3 Route Network Both firms have high frequency daily flights (which correspond to Ã¢â¬Å"product availabilityÃ¢â¬ for Kasilingam, 1998). Ryanair has even Ã¢â¬Å"been voted as the airline with the best punctuality and highest frequencyÃ¢â¬ (Ryanair Holdings PLC Datamonitor Report, 2007). It operates between 133 airports across 24 countries on 436 routes, carrying approximately 45% of all scheduled travellers traffic between Dublin and London (Ryanair Holdings PLC Datamonitor Report, 2007). Regarding EasyJet, it flies between 74 key European airports providing a transportation service for leisure and business customers on 289 routes in 11 countries which are UK, France, Spain, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Denmark, Italy, Czech Republic, Greece, Germany, and Portugal (see Appendix, Map 1 and 2). 2.4 Passengers According to their respective websites, in 2000 EasyJet transported annually 5.996 million people while Ryanair carried 7.002 million passengers. Last year, in 2006, EasyJet and Ryanair transported respectively 32.953 million and 42.500 million customers (see Appendix, Chart 1). 3. TWO COMPANIES, ONE STRATEGY: COSTS REDUCTION According to Proussaloglou and Koppelman (1999), when passengers choose a flight, they try to maximise their Ã¢â¬Å"air travel utilityÃ¢â¬ . In their analysis, the elements that influence the choice of travellers are Ã¢â¬Å"the market presence, quality of service, frequent flyer membership, fare levels and travel restriction, and schedule convenience offered by each available flightsÃ¢â¬ . Do EasyJet and Ryanair meet travellersÃ¢â¬â¢ requirements? RyanairÃ¢â¬â¢s Chief Executive Michael OLeary is obsessed about keeping costs down and said We want to be known as the Wal-Mart of flying (Maier, 2006) In order to be competitive and be able to offer low fare airline services, LCA try to cut all unnecessary costs so that they can boost their tight profit margins. Regarding the Ã¢â¬Å"placement of facilitiesÃ¢â¬ , EasyJet flies mainly to leading airports while Ryanair uses far more secondary airports; In so doing, they reduce costs as secondary airports are generally Ã¢â¬Å"less congested than major airports and can be expected to provide higher rate of on-time departuresÃ¢â¬ (Ryanair Holdings PLC Datamonitor Report, 2007). OÃ¢â¬â¢Leary wants to make air travel free (free as in zero cost). By the end of the decade, he promises, more than half of our passengers will fly free (Maier, 2006). EasyJet gains efficiencies through rapid turnaround times (30 minutes and below) and progressive landing chares agreements with the airports. Free seating which is offered by both airlines, contributes to the rapid turnarounds. The use of an innovative distribution system such as the Internet enables EasyJet and Ryanair to reduce their distribution costs. Over 90% of all seats on EasyJetÃ¢â¬â¢s flights are sold over the Internet, making them one of EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest Internet retailers. Ã¢â¬Å"TicketlessÃ¢â¬ travel reduces costs as it eliminates the cost of issuing, distributing, processing and reconciling millions of tickets each year. Furthermore the Internet allows travellers to book; change and view flights 24 hours a day which is referred to, by Kasilingam as Ã¢â¬Å"accuracy of filling an orderÃ¢â¬ (Kasilingam, 1998). LCA do not, in general, provide loyalty cards to attract frequent flyers, thereby avoid the setting up and maintenance costs of the service. Other ways in which EasyJet and its main rival reduce costs include not serving meals to passengers on their flights, which reduces the cleaning fee. It also means charging passengers for practically every amenity they might consume. 4. LOGISTICS ISSUES Kasilingam (1998) defines logistics as the Ã¢â¬Å"process of moving, storing and retrieving material, people and information efficiently and economicallyÃ¢â¬ , then goes on to divide its system into major planning areas: 4.1 Customer service levels Ã¢â¬Å"Product availabilityÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"accuracy of filling an orderÃ¢â¬ have already been mentioned in sub-sections 2.4 and 3.1 respectively. ? Regarding staff language skills we can say that English being one of the most popular language worldwide, staff members from United Kingdom are advantaged. But, it is not enough. Both companies require their cabin crew to be fluent in written and spoken English. No other languages are required and no language training is conducted. According to Ryanair and EasyJet passengersÃ¢â¬â¢ comments, staff language skills are respectively Ã¢â¬Å"very poorÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"poorÃ¢â¬ (Skytrax). This could be a major problem for both airlines as globalisation is expending very fast. Wanting to avoid language training costs or not hiring enough qualified staff could make them lose customers as it diminishes the quality of the customer service provided. ? This lack of skills can also result in complaints. EasyJet and Ryanair had to face lot of complaints regarding the fact that there is no information about compensation for missing a flight and no attempt to provide alternates solutions to travellers. Some passengers put forward the fact that it is cheap but the cheap prices do not in any way make up for the lack of services (Skytrax). The fact that these companies are viewed as Ã¢â¬Å"money grabbing tacticsÃ¢â¬ users is damaging both companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ brand image and reduces their competitiveness. 4.2 Location decision The competitive advantage taken from Ã¢â¬Å"Placement of facilitiesÃ¢â¬ has already been discussed in sub-section 3.1. 4.3 Transportation Management Ã¢â¬Å"Transportation mode, fleet size, route selection and just in timeÃ¢â¬ have been examined in section 2. But we can also point out that the creation of new route networks leads to another logistics issue. More routes imply more flights and consequently more planes. This means that, the more routes companies take on, the more planes they will have to purchase. Apart from Kasilingam major planning areas, companies like airlines have to face other issues related to logistics: 4.4 Petrol We all know that petrol is one of the commercialised goods that suffer fluctuation nearly everyday. It affects not only direct consumers in gas stations (car/motorcycle owners) but also airline companies who generally augment ticket prices to cover the rises. Ryanair remains one of the only airlines to guarantee no fuel surcharges ever, prompting even more passengers to flock to their lowest fares. This marketing strategy allows the firm to keep the same price range whatever the variation of petrol price. In doing so, its customers will not be affected and thus not disappointed by the petrol fluctuation. 4.5 Airlines and the Nature 4.5.1 Environment By owning young fleet and flying to short haul destination, with an average of 954 kilometers in 2006, EasyJet was able to reduce CO2 emissions and fuel burn per passenger kilometre. Ryanair has as well achieved to reduce fuel consumption and emissions of almost 52% between 1998 and 2006 (Ryanair). Both airline companies deliver travellers directly to their destination, it is to say with only one flight (point-to-point).This avoid passengers to take connection flights which necessitate two take-offs and two landings, in so doing both airlines limit emissions. This concern for environmental issues does not go unnoticed by clients and, like for the petrol issue, it permits both companies to gain new clients and/or keep their customers. 4.5.2 Climate Bad weather is a big worry for airlines, and LCA are well known for their lack of organisation when it happens. Kevin Shanahan, an EasyJet client, witnesses on the 20th March 2007 on a Skytrax passenger forum: Ã¢â¬Å"Inbound flight to Geneva couldnt land due to bad weather late at night. Found out by phoning home before EasyJet told us at the airport. No help from EasyJet staff to find a hotel for the night (Too late for tourist information), no help to get transport to the hotel. Insufficient places on flight next day [Ã¢â¬ ¦]Ã¢â¬ . Once again disappointment is present. 5. CONCLUSION Ã¢â¬Å"The traditional low-cost model has been that of the charter or non-scheduled airlines which have been such a success in Europe. But the second model introduced into Europe in the late 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s is that of the point-to-point, low-cost, no-frills scheduled airlines like EasyJet and RyanairÃ¢â¬ (Doganis, 2001). EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s LCA models are without a doubt EasyJet and Ryanair, but as every other firm, they have to cope with logistics issues. In this report we have tried to examine them at a strategic level, not focusing on what they do and how, but on WHY. 7. REFERENCES ? Cranfield College of Aeronautics, 2000. EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s Low Cost Airlines. An Analysis of the economics and operating characteristics of EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s charter and low costs scheduled carriers. Air Transport Group, Cranfield University, Cranfield. ? Doganis, R. (2001) The Airline Business in the 21st Century. New York: Routledge ? Easyjet, About us (2006) Information pack. [Cited 20th March 2007]. ? Kasilingam, R.G. (1998) Logistics and Transportation: design and planning. Kluwer Academic. ? Maier, M. (2006) A radical fix for airlines: Make flying free. Business 2.0 Available on CNN Money website ? Proussaloglou, K. and Koppelman, F. S., 1999. The choice of air carrier, flight, and fare class. Journal of Air Transport Management. 5: 193-201. ? Ryanair, About us (2007). [Cited 21st March 2007]. ? Ryanair Holdings PLC Datamonitor Report, 2007. ? Skytrax, Airline Ranking (2007). [Cited 26th March 2007] ? Yahoo, Finance UK (2007) Investing. [Cited 15th March 2007] Research Papers on Logistics Issues Facing Both Easyjet and RyanairNever Been Kicked Out of a Place This NiceAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaTwilight of the UAWDefinition of Export QuotasOpen Architechture a white paperMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfThe Project Managment Office SystemInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 Europe
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Geographic Information Systems - Research Paper Example This computerized system would ease the timely calculation of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s payroll and with very little chance of any errors in those calculations. If witnessed on a larger scale, there is a number of information handling requirements of organizations. Every organizational level within a business needs certain information in order to execute the set of processes at that level. Managers at the higher management level need to make decisions for which they need results of reports and data analysis. This enables them to successfully embed the processed information into their decision making procedures. Likewise, managers at the middle managerial level would need more simplified information that would enable them to keep an eye over the day to day ongoing business activities. Thus, it may well be said that the execution of a full day of business processes running within an organization requires the operating of a number of information systems simultaneously each of which woul d cater to the specific requirements at each organizational level. Following is a narration of a specific type of information systems termed as the Geographical Information Systems. The narration has been done in first person. GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS) My name is Geographical Information System. I am a perfect example of practically implemented Information systems. WHY AM I IMPORTANT (WHY IS A GIS IMPORTANT?) The geography of land on which human beings live is of immense importance to them. Ever since the ancient times of the human society these living beings have looked up locations of areas to analyze the possibility of presence of prey in that particular area. The early hunters based their living on moving from one location to the other. Geographical importance of land and the details of its terrain have been of integral importance to man since centuries ago. Maps, spatial information have been the source of discovery and planning since times unknown. Geographical ma pping is the most integral use of the geographical information at hand. Looking up the route to a particular location is among the most basic ways in which geographical information helps. Spatial information, on the other hand, affects the most basics of human society such as the growing up of crops, the production of energy, the making of clothes worn by man. With the discovery of computing technology all the geographical and spatial information was put to even better use. It was possible only after the integration of computing technology that my creation was planned. My development was aimed as the making of a tool that would be able to assist human beings with the geographic knowledge associated with themselves and their belongings. I am designed to help in the gathering and use of spatial data. I embed within myself certain technological features such as advanced networking abilities for establishing effective and timely communication, space age data collectors for maintaining a ny data collection in massive databases for future use and other highly sophisticated and intricate computing features. My capabilities and features continue to evolve with the passing of time since technological advancements are rising on a very rapid rate. These ever-developing technological changes are making my systems more enhanced with every passing unit time. The basic
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
We can but should we The purpose of this assignment is to investigate safeguards and apply ethical principles to the use health care technology - Article Example With such deliberations, it would be necessary to assess and articulate issues arising as a result of EHR introduction. The Chip is argued to contain no medical records, but it is the code in it that is revealed Ã¢â¬â and only in doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s office or hospital. The code is argued to be unlocked by healthcare providers in order to access that personÃ¢â¬â¢s medical information (Mollar, 2009). However, there is much to think about other than the safety of EHR. For example, with the announcement of intentions to introduce EHR, different companies have shown interest in venturing into the business of making the gadget. This is evidenced by the way these companies are making partnerships with various healthcare institutions. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"Emdat announced a partnership with IBJI, MediRew announced a new client with Bon Secours Charity Health System, and Philips announced the implementation of it enterprise-wide clinical informatics technology at Baptist Health South Florida (BHSF) among many othersÃ¢â¬ (Miliard, 2012, Para 2, 3 and4). In this regard, it can be argued that the issue of EHR is endorsed by certain forces which among them include entrepreneurial urge. Proponents of EHR argue that EHR could help reduce errors in medical records (Mollar, 2009). To some extent, this can be argued to be true because no doubt that hand written records are subject to errors and omissions. It is also argued that, with written records, the likelihood of losing records is high. Cases of lost or missing files or files being misplaced have been reported in the past. Additionally, catastrophes like fire and floods have in the past destroyed physical records. In light with this, digital record is argued to store records for a long time (Mollar, 2009). It can also help keep health information that patients tends to forget with time. EHRs are also argued to
Sunday, November 17, 2019
How does Descartes use the example of wax to reinforce his argument of the existence of the self - Term Paper Example e I am) which implies that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s consciousness, set of thoughts or thinking or ability to doubt would give proof of his own existence because of the Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢ or ego that conceives it (R. Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy) This is all the more reinforced when Descartes came up with the Ã¢â¬Å"wax argumentÃ¢â¬ in substantiating his proof on the existence of the self. To Descartes, the program of radical doubt must be established on a solitary endeavor or more appropriately, a deliberate isolation which forms the nature of his philosophical work having been freed of social or emotional disturbances enabling him to inquire Ã¢â¬Å"What shall I say of the mind itself, that is, of myself? For as yet I do not admit that I am anything but mind. What, then! I who seem to possess so distinct an apprehension of the Ã¢â¬Ëpiece of waxÃ¢â¬â¢, do I not know myself, both with greater truth and certitude, and also much more distinctly and clearly? For if I judge that the wax exists because I see it, it assuredly follows, much more evidently, that I myself am or exist, for the same reason: for it is possible that what I see may not in truth be wax, and that I do not even possess eyes with which to see anything; but it cannot be that when I see, or, which comes to the same thing, when I think I see, I myself who think am nothing (Descartes, Meditation II).Ã¢â ¬ Basically, Descartes proposed the Ã¢â¬Å"wax argumentÃ¢â¬ in two stages being Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"(1) the argument from change; and (2) the argument from intellection then personified the Ã¢â¬Å"waxÃ¢â¬ in an entity called Ã¢â¬ËBobÃ¢â¬â¢ who sits on the mantle as time Ã¢â¬ËtÃ¢â¬â¢ passes (Graziano, 2011)Ã¢â¬ . It is claimed that at an instant, Bob is found with initial properties such as those which the senses are susceptible to experience in terms, for instance, of temperature change, phase shift, or shape transformation. Ã¢â¬Å"At time Ã¢â¬ËtÃ¢â¬â¢, Bob can assume the shape of an orb while being cold and solid at the same time while at some time after Ã¢â¬ËtÃ¢â¬â¢ he may
Friday, November 15, 2019
Comparison of the theories of feminism Feminism has a movement has gained momentum in recent pasts to the extent that there are a number of gender gains the world over. The theories of feminism are categorized into five, some of which are distinct and other closely related. These are: Liberal Feminism, Socialist Feminism; Radical Feminism; Post-Modern Feminism; and Multicultural feminism. However, this paper zeroes down on two, namely Liberal and Radical feminism, in an attempt to show the contribution that feminism has made (or continues to make) in the contemporary social analysis. Liberal Feminism Some of the proponents of this category of feminism include Mary Wollstonecraft, John Stuart Mill, Betty Friedan and Rebecca Walker. Liberal feminism is an individualistic form of feminism because it is generally based on womens ability to assert their equality through their own actions and choices. This is what Eleanor calls faith in rationality (Eleanor, 1996). Accordingly, the starting point for promoting such equality is based on individual interaction between men and women and that women can change their circumstances. Liberal feminism looks at the personal interactions of men and women as the starting ground from which to transform society into a more gender-equitable place. The issues important t to liberal feminists include reproductive rights and abortion access, sexual harassment, voting, education, fair compensation for work, affordable childcare, affordable health care, and bringing to light the frequency of sexual and domestic violence against women. The basic tenet of liberal feminism is that it is anchored on legal and political reform as a means to ensuring equality between men and women. This, according to them, is tailored on looking at the government through lobby groups to bring about legislative changes that promote gender equity. This brings about social and economic equity. Susan Wendell, citing the work of Mackinnon (1987) () says that contemporary feminism is committed to major economic reorganization and considerable redistribution of wealth, since one of the modern political goals most closely associated with liberal feminism is equality of opportunity which would undoubtedly require and lead to both. Liberal feminists argue that all people are equal and that rationality in correcting class differences should be the way to go. How then does this contribute to social analysis? It does so by seeing the oppression of women as not structural feature of capitalistic economic system. Further, the concept of education as a means to changing womens status quo has had remarkable gains in recent times. Additionally, the ongoing debate and actions in the world concerning expansion of women participation has fundamentally centered on inclusiveness into the socio-economic as well as the political mainstream, Radical Feminism Using Mackinnon, (1987:16), Eleanor observes that that radical feminism is not one form of feminism, but simply feminism unmodified. Therefore, many others forms of feminism was only a response to male psyche modification of feminism as it were. (Eleanor, 1996) Feminism in its radical sense has it that society is a patriarchy that primarily oppresses women thus radical feminists seek to disband patriarchy. In this, they recognize that womens oppression is the fundamental oppression. They further assert profoundly that sexism is at the heart of patriarchy especially in the family. Willis (1981), for example, in an essay Lust Horizons: Is the womens movement pro-sex argues against making alliances with the political right in opposition to pornographyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ In a way they in this sense, echo the Marxist belief that if women wanted to deal with the shackles of patriarchy, then they must deal with the issue of reproduction. (Willis, 1981) According to Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, most radical feminists do not universally argue for the criminalization of pornography or objectification of women, but rather that in the absence of patriarchy, the public demand for such materials would drastically decrease as a much smaller percentage of the population would be aroused by viewing womens oppression and degradation Conclusively, radical feminism is anchored on total restructuring if society an extreme view which would call for severing relationships with men, that is ending heterosexual relationship with me. Radical feminists seem to believe that the way to deal with patriarchy and oppression of all kinds is to address the underlying causes of these problems through revolution. Q2. Cognitive Theory of Social comparison in explaining Crowd behavior at a large (50,000+) sporting events Introduction A crowd can be defined in a number of ways but the widely accepted definition of crowd is that of large groups of individuals in the same physical environment, sharing a common goal. Usually such individuals act in a different way than when they are alone. (Reading, 1996): In a football match scenario, understanding the behavior of the crowd can be grounded on cognitive theory of social comparison. This theory as advanced by Festinger (1952), asserts that people tend to compare their behavior with others that are most like them. Muss and Thulman (1986) using the ideas of Festinger gives a more specific assertion by saying that people, when lacking objective means for appraisal of their opinions and capabilities, compare their opinions and capabilities to those of others that are similar to them. In the process, they attempt to correct any differences found. Basis on this social comparison theory may explain crowd behavior in a football match in the following ways: Common Stimulus between crowd participants According to Muss and Thulman (1986), one of the social comparisons theory implications is group formation. This according to them happens to the extent that self evaluation can only be accomplished by means of comparison with other persons. Festinger attributes this to the fact people in a crowd are driven by the desire to belong to the group. In other words, they tend to move to a group which belongs to them and which share their opinion and who have almost similar ability. For instance, it is common to see football fans that support a particular team more interested in being within the physical boundaries of their fellow supporters or those who share in their fantasy. Imitational behavior Using Festinger ideas, Muse and Thulman (1986) explains that the existence of a discrepancy in a group with respect to opinions or abilities will lead to action on the part of members of that group to reduce the discrepancy This should explain some behaviors in a football match setting, including one person starting to sing and the others who support the same team following swiftly. Other examples would include, booing a player, usually started by one person and followed swiftly by others. A more propounding illustration is such crowd behavior in an event of a stampede. Usually people will tend to run to one direction regardless of if the cause of fear is genuine or not, as long as the one of their own signals them to do so. Q3. Use sociological theories or concepts to help explain Listening to music on a portable music device Introduction It is common today to see people across all ages and gender alike carrying and listening to music through portable devices publicly. This happens when they are in the office, driving, reading and even walking among others While there should be a number of theories that can explain this phenomenon, system theory, does that at best in trying to justify the tight schedules that the contemporary society puts on people and the dilemmas therein. In so doing it zeroes on multitasking as the issue or as a prime causality to this. System theory System theory may be traced back to the ideas of George Hegel (1770-1831), who saw the world as operating within the push of different poles, in the process creating a conflict which negates a solution for the functioning of the whole system. Hegel imagined that the world was controlled by two opposing poles pulling towards opposite direction. He called one pole the thesis and the opposing side the antithesis. According to him, these two struggle to create an agreed position he called the synthesis, which interestingly also come to create the thesis, the antithesis and the cycle goes on and on. In a way, one would argue that this corresponds directly to the conflict theory, but for the purposes of looking at the phenomenon as a response to holistic demands, the perspective is tied to system theory. (Pippin, 1989) Notably, the person who qualified system theory as we know it today (within a structural functionalism paradigm) is Von Bertalanffy is a book titled General system theory: Foundations, Development, Applications in 1968. He, as a biologist, endeavored to employ organismic knowledge to use the word system to describe those principles which are common to a general system. In the book, he says that there exist models, principles, and laws that apply to generalized systems or their subclasses, irrespective of their particular kind, the nature of their component elements, and the relationships or forces between them. It seems legitimate to ask for a theory, not of systems of a more or less special kind, but of universal principles applying to systems in general System theory is based on the belief that for a system (a being, an entity, an organization among others) to work sufficiently, all the parts of that system must be in order, and that there is interrelatedness of the parts. To qualify this theory in understanding the portable music system public use phenomenon, it is important to relate it to the numerous issues that todays human responds to, within the confluence of multitasking and not able to respond to other demands of life. Therefore, listening to portable music while responding to other systems, not only works to perpetuate interrelatedness of demands of today but also in satisfying his/her needs.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Tender is the Night Ã¢â¬Å"Servant troubleÃ¢â¬ ¦political worriesÃ¢â¬ ¦almost neurosisÃ¢â¬ ¦drinking increasedÃ¢â¬ ¦arguments with ScottieÃ¢â¬ ¦quarrel with HemingwayÃ¢â¬ ¦quarrel with Bunny WilsonÃ¢â¬ ¦quarrel with Gerald MurphyÃ¢â¬ ¦breakdown of carÃ¢â¬ ¦tight at Eddie PoeÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¦sick againÃ¢â¬ ¦first borrowing from motherÃ¢â¬ ¦sickÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ËThe FireÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ ¦Zelda weakens and goes to HopkinsÃ¢â¬ ¦one servant and eating out.Ã¢â¬ (Mayfield 207) A short excerpt from F. Scott FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s Ledger provides a small sample of the many hurdles Fitzgerald struggled to overcome while slaving away nine years with Tender is the Night. The labor which accompanied FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s fourth novel was not anticipated by the author. He had first envisioned Tender is the Night to be Ã¢â¬Å"something really new in form, idea, and structureÃ¢â¬âthe model for the age that Joyce and Stein are searching for, that Conrad didnÃ¢â¬â¢t findÃ¢â¬ (Scribner 1). But disease, relative poverty, and heartbreak plagued Fitzgerald and repeatedly interrupted his work on the novel. Tender is the Night finally appeared on April 12, 1934. But despite FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s high expectations of hot reviews, the reception was, at best, luke warm. The novel sold only thirteen thousand copies and left FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s ego bruised and his hopes of its estimable success unfulfilled. Ernest Hemingway offered little praise. The characters, he believed, were Ã¢â¬Å"beautifully faked case histories rather than peopleÃ¢â¬ (Mayfield 209). Similarly unimpressed, Hal Borland of the Philadelphia Ledger remarked on April 13, 1934, Ã¢â¬Å"Most of the themes [of Tender is the Night] seem better fitted for clinical studies than for fiction. FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s novel is admirably done, and its dozens of cross-currents are well handled. But it is not the important nov... ...the criticsÃ¢â¬â¢ reception of Tender is the Night. Though short in length, Scribner reveals several excerpts from FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s letters and personal writings which present for the readers a more personal view of Fitzgerald, the author. http://people.brandeis.edu/~teuber/fitzgeraldbio.html This website lists FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s published works and offers a detailed biography of the author himself. The highlighted texts serve to differentiate different eras in FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The site also offers several links wherein additional information regarding influential people and events can be researched. http://www.sc.edu/fitzgerald.com This website summarizes FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s life as well as the general reception of his novels. It also touches on the many hurdles Fitzgerald came across during his nine years of struggling with his fourth novel, Tender is the Night.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Levels of Hierarchy: are the layers of authority within an organisation. Spans of control: A span of control is the number of workers directly supervised by a more senior employee. Whereas an organisation chart shows how employees fit into the business, a job description gives details about what is expected of the individual employee. Job applicants normally receive a job description when they apply for a position with a business. A job description usually consists of: 1) The title of the job (e.g. sales manager). 2) The tasks to be completed as part of the job (e.g. having to write monthly sales reports, in the case of a sales manager). 3) The responsibilities of the job (e.g. a sales manager might be responsible for managing a team of sales representatives). 4) Information on working conditions linked to the job, such as rates of pay, hours to be worked and holidays. 5) A description of how the job fits into the organisational structure. UK businesses have employed increasing number of part-time and temporary employees. They have also used self-employed workers, who hire out their skills to firms but are their own bosses. At the same time, businesses have made use of more flexible contracts of employment, in some cases with annualised hours (hours worked in a year) included instead of hours per week. High proportions of these types of employees in businesses are called flexible workforces. In recent years, a number of trends have emerged in the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce, including: More temporary workers: The number of workers on temporary contracts has risen since the early 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s although in the last few years it has levelled out. In 2000, nearly two million workers were on temporary contracts. Use of annualised hours: Many businesses face an uneven pattern of work over the year. For example, farms are very busy in the summer months harvesting crops, but are quiet in the winter. Without annualised hours, farmers might pay overtime in the summer and not have enough work to keep employees busy during the winter months. More part-time working: The number of employees within the UK who work part-time has increased each year. By 200, more than one-quarter of all employees Ã¢â¬â nearly seven million people Ã¢â¬â were part-time workers. Self-Employment: The number of self-employed has fallen recently, but 2.5 million people still work for themselves. Hiring consultants: Many businesses have replaced full-time employees with consultants, who work for a business for a short time. Consultants are usually very highly skilled, for example IT experts. Use of contractors: Many businesses employ other firms to carry out particular duties. The exact arrangements are set out in a contract between the businesses involved. It is common, for example, to hire contract staff for cleaning, rather than use permanent full-time employees. Managers: Managers play a vital role in businesses; 1) They have responsibility for an aspect of the businessÃ¢â¬â¢s work under the guidance from the director. For example, a manager might take responsibility for employee training, under guidance from the director of human resources. 2) Managers plan activities, look after teams of employees, manage finances and attempt to meet targets set by the directors of the business. 3) ManagersÃ¢â¬â¢ jobs are normally secure, as they usually have permanent full-time contracts. Managers often have a professional qualification in an area such as accountancy or marketing. They need to be good communicators, able to use IT, use time effectively and control finances. ManagersÃ¢â¬â¢ pay varies according to the seniority of the position, but it can be over Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½100,000 a year. Other benefits that are common are company cars and private health insurance. Supervisors: In some businesses supervisors are also called team leaders. Supervisors provide a link between operatives and managers. They; 1) Monitor work of junior employees. 2) Ensure that production and quality targets set by managers are met whenever possible. 3) Advise managers of problems or difficulties in the work of the business. In some businesses supervisors have been given responsibility for some of the roles previously carried out by managers. For instance, they may recruit new employees or lead training sessions. The pay of supervisors depends on how much authority they have, but they are normally paid more than operatives. Operatives: The most junior employees in the business are the operatives. In a factory, they would work on the production line; in a shop they would be the sales assistants. Their role in a business is as follows; 1) They are normally only responsible for their own work. 2) They usually carry out routine tasks, though some employers do provide more varied and interesting work. 3) They often have little job security. Many are employed on temporary contracts, and when the contract runs out they may find themselves unemployed. Others find they are no longer needed because their jobs have been replaced by machinery. 4) In a minority of businesses, they are allowed to take decisions such as stopping the production line to remove poor-quality products. Many operatives are relatively unskilled. Sales assistants may have some training and qualifications in customer service, but some factory workers on production lines have no qualifications. Because of this, pay rates for operatives are normally low.| Support Staff: The support staff provides Specialist skills in businesses. They may offer expertise in the areas of security or information technology or provide secretarial skills. Support staff can operate at various levels in the organisation; 1) They offer advice and assistance in their specialist areas to employees. Thus, IT staff may recommend new software or hardware, provide training and sort out computer problems. 2) Some support staff are managers looking after teams of people are in charge on finances; others carry out routine tasks. 3) Senior support staff take important decisions, such as spending on computer systems. There are two working arrangements at Richer sounds, one is for permanent and temporary colleagues and the other is for full-time and part-time colleagues. Information on these working arrangements follow; Working arrangements for permanent and temporary colleagues: The vast majority of their colleagues are employed permanently. They are all issued with a written contract of employment. At Christmas Richer S0unds employ greeters in their stores to greet and assist customers at busy times. Their greeters are temporary colleagues who work for a short time and their work ends after the sale period. Many are students at college or university who work for them during their Christmas holidays. Richer Sounds do not issue written contracts to temporary colleagues, neither do we keep personnel records for them. However, they do receive a mini-welcome pack, which explains how Richer Sounds operates. Working arrangements for full-time and part-time colleagues: Most of thei colleagues work full time, although their hours may vary. A normal working week for store colleagues is 42.5 hours although in some of their stores which are open from 12 noon Ã¢â¬â 7 pm, colleagues may work fewer hours. Departmental support colleagues work 40 hours a week. Richer Sounds donÃ¢â¬â¢t use the term Ã¢â¬Ëpart-timeÃ¢â¬â¢. Colleagues who donÃ¢â¬â¢t work the full number of hours are called career key timers. They have access to all the same training opportunities and benefits as the full-time colleagues.
Friday, November 8, 2019
A right to good healthcare Essays A right to good healthcare Essay A right to good healthcare Essay Introduction to Ethics and Social Responsibility This is the United States of America, land of the free. Good health care is a right, not a privilege. Healthcare (including public health) is special because it protects normal functioning, which in turn protects the range of opportunities open to individuals (Daniels N. 2001 pig. 2). Currently President Obama has been trying to change the way health care is approached in the United States. He is facing quite a bit of opposition in his ideas that the government should provide health care for all Americans. No matter what your stance is on President Beams healthcare plan, we all realize that it is better to have health insurance than not. With prescription-drug costs being so out of control, many people have to choose between food and their prescriptions. Which is Just not right, the fact is that health care is out of control. If healthcare was made more affordable it would actually end up costing taxpayers less in the long run because the expense of having to pay for uninsured patients medical expenses is so high. The cost of going to a doctor is so high that many dont even other until it is often too late. Having experience a major health issue myself at the last minute, because I am not offered any type of healthcare insurance through my job. Many Americans Just cannot afford the cost of health insurance. In this paper I will address several issues on why healthcare is so important to Americans; such as the types of preventative care needed. Ways to prevent diseases, screenings and causes. The reasons many Americans Just do not have any type of healthcare coverage. Preventative Care The emphasis on preventative healthcare is all for good reasons. By maintaining f opportunities (or plans of life) reasonable people would choose in a given society (Daniel, N. 2001, pig. 2). Many people without access to healthcare only go to the Doctors after they have been ill or injured. We all know that regular exercise, a good nutritious diet, not smoking, and drinking to excess is the best course to minimize health problems and reduce the amount of money spent on health care. Along with life style selections we make the environment in which we live and work are critical to good preventative health practices. Prenatal Care is a preventative care practice. Women in developing countries are bleeding to death after giving birth, writhing in the convulsions of clamps, and collapsing from days of futile contractions, knowing that they have suffocated their babies to death (Maine, D Yamin,A, 1999, pig. 562). Getting good prenatal care is very important for the expectant mother and the unborn child. Many pregnant women in Georgia receive free prenatal care for their unborn child. This is great for the many women like myself that do not have healthcare insurance, and do not make enough money to actually pay out of pocket to have a baby. There are so many doctors appointments, screenings, and tests that need to be taken as a precaution before a mother gives birth. Moreover, according to the World Bank, although men and women between the ages of fifteen and forty-four lose approximately the same number of years of healthy life due to disease, there is no single cause of death and disability for men that comes close to the magnitude of maternal death and disability (Maine, D Hyman, A. 1999, pig. 564). Many women choose not to participate in having prenatal care, either from being in such denial, embarrassment, and even religious beliefs. This could be very dangerous to both mother and baby, many tests and screenings could have shown if the pregnancy needed to be aborted or if there is a complication such as the umbilical cord wrapped around the babys neck, or th e baby may be breached (the baby head is not down for delivery). Also tests can detect birth defects which are physical abnormalities that may be caused by inherited genes, genetic mutations, or environmental factors. Technology is so advanced now many expectant mothers are offered D and D visual of their precious baby. Even learning the sex of the unborn baby can be very exciting for new parents, but all which is very expensive to those that do not have medical coverage in place. Well care check-ups are so important staring with infants. Most infants have their first well-baby exam within the first few days to weeks after birth. Even when things are going well, frequent checkups during the first year are an important way to monitor the babys growth and development. Many parents have their children vaccinated according to their age. These vaccines are to help prevent many childhood diseases, not saying that the child still may not get sick, but it is a great prevention plan all parents should participate in. As parents it is very important that, they make sure their children stay on the vaccinated scheduled for their age. Many children must have all their immunization done before they can enter kindergarten. Other screenings are ear, eye, and dental checks. Many low-income or single parent homes, their children may be eligible for the Medicaid Program. This helps assists many single mothers with keeping up with their children well-care check-ups, vision and dental screenings. Well care check-ups go on into adult hood, many people that employers that do not offer any healthcare tend to slack up on doctor visits. But regular check-ups are still very important, certain age screenings are still needed. Early diagnosis for many diseases can be detected. Being without healthcare insurance, I was put into a life-threatening health scare in 2009, and it could have been prevented if I had been receiving regular check-ups, but like millions of Americans around the world, the cost are Just beyond high. Also, many Americans feel as though they are treated differently if they do not have any type of health coverage. Without co-pay at the time, one may be sent home without the proper screenings or sets run, and this is and can be very scary, and could be life-threatening. Long-term illnesses sometimes may not be able to be prevented, but detecting them early can save a person life. Cancers, Diabetes, HIVE/AIDS are a few long term diseases, even though some are not preventable, but when detected early your chances of either recovering or living comfortable with it may be easier. Many people feel like do not ask do not tell, or if it is not broke then do not fix it. These feelings can sometimes cause many people to be severely sick and suffer, or cause an unexpected death. This all could have been prevented with regular check-ups. Education is also an important factor; many people Just do not have the knowledge on the type of signs and symptoms on many illnesses. This is why having regular check-ups are so important. Disease Prevention Disease Prevention is a very important role in healthcare. Prevention comes with check-ups, screenings, and knowledge. There are so many diseases that cannot be prevented, but can be treated with antibiotics and other medicines. Several of those diseases are: Arthritis, Alchemists, and Cancers cannot be prevented, but they can be treated. There are two common types of Arthritis which are Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid. There are commercials that have different types of medicines to help with the pain of Arthritis. Many people have seen the Celebrate commercial. Alchemists is a type of dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior. The most common symptom is difficulty remembering, and usually develops slowly and get worse over time, becoming severe enough to interfere with daily tasks. As Alchemists advance it leads to severe symptoms, including disorientation, mood and behavior changes. Alchemists has no current cure, but reattempts for symptoms are available and research continues. Cancer is characterized by an abnormal growth of cells. There are more than 100 types of cancer, including breast cancer, skin cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, and lymphoma. Cancer symptoms vary widely based on the type of cancer. Cancer currently has no cure, but treatment options include: includes chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. With early and proper treatment these diseases can make living with them a lot easier. Later detection can result in emergency surgeries, long term pain, and even death. Diseases that can be prevented are Sexual Transmitted Diseases (Studs) and HIVE/AIDS. Studs are infectious diseases that spread from person to person through sexual contact. Studs can affect anyone who is having sex. Studs are common among teens, since they are at a higher risk, its important to learn what you can do to protect yourself, things simple as abstinence, and condoms. If untreated, some Studs can cause serious health AIDS). Early detection can cure some Studs, with medication such as antibiotics. As stated in (Bible, G. 2007, pig. 1086), amidst denial, stigma, and inaction, AIDS became he first major epidemic of present-day globalization. Of more than 40 million people estimated to be HIVE-infected worldwide, 95 percent live in middle- or low-income countries, causing life expectancy to drop dramatically in those countries worst hit (Bible, G. 2007, pig. 1086). In late 2003, with only about 400,000 people receiving treatment, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Program on HIVE/AIDS (UNAIDED) announced their goal of having 3 million HIVE-positive people on antimicrobial therapy by 2005 (Bible, G. 2007 pig. 1086). Early detection of HIVE/AIDS can allow someone to live comfortable with the disease while on their medication. Reasons many do not have Coverage Statistics show that people without health insurance do not get their health checked regularly and therefore are at a greater risk of having something that may have been prevented happen later on. Given the cost of even basic insurance, many people of modest means who do not qualify for Medicaid cannot reasonably afford insurance without subsidy (Mizzen, P. 2011, pig. 86). The high expense of going to a doctor visit is why most people without insurance do not go to the doctor and this is something hat should be changed as well. Costs of medical insurance as well as the cost of having health insurance all need to be made more affordable for Americans so they will take better care of themselves. Having health insurance is important because coverage helps people get timely medical care and improves their lives and health (Levy, H , M. 2004, pig. 110). Its sometimes about $500 or more to see a doctor, and then add lab tests, x-rays, etc. Many will see their family doctor if it is not a true emergency. There is a reason why they are called Emergency Rooms there are walk- n clinics everywhere. At your family Doctor get the same treatment at half the price. You also are not taking up space when someones life may be at stake, and truly need the emergency room. There are new triage system evaluates your symptoms and can even refuse to admit you to the ERE, referring you to your family doctor, where you should probably go in the first place. Many people will go to the ERE because they think they cant be refused, and think they can be seen at no cost to them. Verses going to their own doctor, they may have to pay a co-pay or office visit, and even have o take a prescription to their local pharmacy and have to buy their own meds. Since 1989, the federal Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (METAL) have prohibited hospitals from refusing acute care to those who cannot afford to pay (Mizzen, P. 2011, pig. 83). Realistically, when hospitals live up to this requirement, it is difficult for them to confine the care they provide to the emergency room (Mizzen, P. 2011, pig. 83). Patients who are not kept on for further acute care outside the emergency room will likely Just show up again, incurring more emergency room care for which they are not insured. Self-employed individuals have limited choices when it comes to health insurance coverage. Many go without going to have regular check- ups and preventative care screenings. They can buy an individual plan, start a group policy or forgo coverage altogether. However, even having coverage wont guarantee financial security in the event of medical catastrophe. A business group insurance policy costs members less because the financial risk for the insurance company is better coverage, there are many ways for self-employed people to Join a group. Most people obtain health coverage through a health plan offered by their employer. However, many people have become unemployed either to termination, Job closures, and even being laid off. Currently state and federal law allows people who have recently become unemployed to continue their previous health coverage for some time. If one loses their group coverage for employment-related reasons, some may be able to continue your coverage for a limited time. Employees who stay at a Job, but lose coverage eligibility because of a reduction in the number of hours they work, are also usually able to elect to continue their coverage. The employer is no longer squired to contribute any amount toward premium costs, so you must pay the full price of coverage yourself. However, continuing a work-sponsored plan may still be more affordable than purchasing coverage individually Conclusion The central moral importance, for purposes of Justice, of preventing and treating disease and disability with effective healthcare services (construed broadly to include public health and environmental measures, as well as personal medical services) derives from the way in which protecting normal functioning contributes to protecting opportunity (Daniels, N. 2001, pig. 2).
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Trial by Declaration essays Trial of The Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Benjamin Franklin, and Robert R. Livingston for the Continental Congress Presented in Philadelphia at Pennsylvania State House Most authorities accept that the Declaration was first written by Jefferson with input from the other four members of the committee. Jefferson sent drafts to Adams and Franklin and presented the final form to Congress. The ideas they included were often takenword for wordfrom prior documents including Richard Henry Lees Motion to create free and independent States. This document is the sum of many brilliant mens thoughts on Philosophy, Government, and War. Most of all, it clearly presented the frustration all of the Continental Congress was feeling at the time, having been stumped by the Kings childish maneuvers to control the colonies for his benefit and amusement. The following is the Closing Argument of the Prosecuting Attorney in the Court Of The Supreme Judge (God) against the Defense, His Majesty the King of Great Britain; a dramatization of Americas struggle to prove the need for independent government. 'Your Honor, We have seen in the court room evidence and testimony of the People of these Thirteen American Colonies. First we presented for you Experts in Philosophy and Human Rights who clearly identified each persons rights to Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness. These same learned men have defined a Government as, quote, Servant and Defendant of the People. 'Professor Barris, Doctorate of Law, testified that the Laws of His Majesty were unjust and did not benefit my Client, not to mention were created by men who did not represent my Client, the Americans. 'The esteemed Senators present here vow to have been sent home numerous times on the whim of this King. They ...
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Brand building for facilitating the launch of Dogerita mineral water - Essay Example People are bombarded with advertisements and a wide variety of brands to choose from. As competition is fierce in an age where there is plenty to choose from, companies need to find ways to create a niche and to improve its brand in the market. It is no longer sufficient to just provide a product. The German Share Company must find ways to stand above the rest in a global business environment that fights for the consumers' money and loyalty. In order to do this, it must develop a brand and a brand strategy. a brand is also considered to be a trademark or a product line. It is a distinctive name which addresses, or identifies, a product, service, or a manufacturer. People purchase a certain brand in order to acquire a distinctive category and to show ownership of the brand that they favour. The name of the organization can also serve as a brand. As stated earlier, the value of a certain brand is determined by how it is perceived by the target audience and the marketplace. After defining the brand, the company must develop a strategy of branding, or a brand strategy. This process consists of coming up with a foundation (a basis) in which to work from. It is a guideline and a system of measuring all marketing strategies and resources/materials. It is a way to deliver the brand strategy, or promise to the target audience.
Friday, November 1, 2019
Three Google Apps - Essay Example However, if the intended person contacted or sent to a message is offline, he or she will receive the message when he or she goes online (Darbyshire, 2010).Second, the Google Docs is a free Google application and an online word processor that is web-based and allows for creation, editing and online storage of documents and spreadsheets. There is access to the files, documents, and spreadsheets, created, edited, and stored online using computers provided there are full-featured web browsers and an internet connection. Google Docs both create and format text documents and enables for collaboration with other people in real time. Google Docs allows one to perform such functions as uploading a word document and converting the document to a Google document. In addition, Google Docs allows the users to add formatting and flair to the documents by adjusting colors, spacing, margins, and fonts. Moreover, Google Docs enables people (the users) to invite other people for collaboration purposes on a document edit, review, or access (Darbyshire, 2010). Third, Google sites are the tools for the creation of web pages for the purposes of providing work productivity suites. Google sites enable all people to create sites that are team-oriented where anyone can collaborate and share files with one another. In the Google sites, people can collaborate and work together to add information and file attachments from other Google applications such as YouTube, Picassa, Google Docs, and Google Calendar (Darbyshire, 2010).